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CHIDINMA MARTINA IFEKAUCHE

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  • Name: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEEL IN 1M HYDROCHLORIC ACID USING Tamarindus indica (TAMARIND) AND Terminalia catappa (TROPICAL ALMOND) LEAVES EXTRACTS AS INHIBITORS
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ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) as corrosion inhibitors for stainless steel in 1M hydrochloric acid at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C was investigated in this research. The gravimetric method of analysis was employed for 20 days at a 4-day interval using 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3g/15mL of Terminalia catappa leaves extracts and 1.4 and 2.3g/15mL of Tamarindus indica leaves extracts. The results showed that the two extracts acted as good inhibitors for stainless steel. The corrosion rate, surface coverage, inhibition efficiency, inhibition mechanism and the effects of temperature were analyzed. The results showed that the highest inhibition efficiency for tamarind was 97.71% at 30°C using 2.4g/15mL, while the lowest was 87.95% with 2.3g/mL at 30°C.The highest efficiency for tropical almond was 97.89% with 1.3g/mL at 50°C and the lowest was 88.7% with 0.9g/mL at 50°C. The isotherms showed that tropical almond acted as a mixed type inhibitor, although predominantly by physisorption. The effects of temperatures also confirmed that tamarind adsorbed by physisorption only.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i
CERTIFICATE OF STAMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
1.0 CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………..……………1
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT PROBLEM STATEMENT……………………………….…………..1
1.2 MOTIVATION…………………………………………………………….………………………2
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES………………………………………………………………………..3
1.4 SCOPE OF PROJECT……………………………………………………………………………..3
1.5 RESEARCH OVERVIEW…………………………………………………………………………4
1.5.1 CORROSION…………………………………………..…………………………………4
1.5.2 TYPES OF CORROSION…………………………….…….…………………………….5
1.5.2.1 DRY OR DIRECT CHEMICAL CORROSION………………………………….5
1.5.2.2 ELECTROCHEMICAL OR WET CORROSION……………………………….6
1.5.3 CORROSION CONTROL……………………………..…………………………………7
1.5.3.1 INORGANIC INHIBITORS……………………….…………………………….8
1.5.3.2 ORGANIC INHIBITORS………………………….…………………………….8
1.5.4 STAINLESS STEEL……………………………………………………………………..10
1.5.5 HYDROCHLORIC ACID…………………………….…………………………………10
2.0 CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW…………..……..……………………………………….11
2.1 CORROSION INHIBITION OF METALS IN VARIOUS MEDIA…………………………….11
2.2 CORROSION INHIBITION OF STAINLESS STEEL IN VARIOUS MEDIA…..…………….14
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS…………….……………………..….……….16
3.1 MATERIALS…………………………………….……………………………………………….                 16
3.2 METHODS………………………………………………….……………………………………                 16
3.2.1 EXTRACTION OF TAMARIND AND TROPICAL ALMOND……………….…………..   16
3.2.2 PREPARATION OF STAINLESS STEEL………………………………………………….           16
3.2.3 PREPARATION OF CORROSION INHIBITION MEDIA………………………….……..    17
3.2.4 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………….                17
4.0 CHPATER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………………………………..…..19
4.1 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR TAMARIND…………………….…………………………        19
4.2 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR TROPICAL ALMOND…………………………………….     22
4.3 ADSORPTION MECHANISM FOR TROPICAL ALMOND…………………………………..  25
4.4 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE………………………………………………………………….             27
vii
5.0 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS………..………………… 28
5.1 CONCLUSIONS.………………….……………………………….……………………………..               28
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………………………………             28
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………….               29

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Metals are used in many industries and they come in contact with a lot of chemicals. The oil industry especially makes use of metals in different applications, which include, pipeline construction, oil tankers, oil well engineering, oil rigs construction, etc. Metal surfaces stand a risk of being attacked by acids used in cleaning them; this leads to corrosion. Corrosion has a lot of effects in different areas in our lives; these areas include economic, safety and environmental. Economically, a lot of cost are put into consideration and accounted for due to corrosion. Corrosion could wear out a machine and could render it useless when not discovered on time. The machine will then have to be replaced adding to the costs incurred. Costs are also incurred as regards to controlling corrosion, by either maintaining the machine or repairing it, or specially designing the machine to resist or withstand attacks by corrosive media1.In safety, corrosion poses a great threat to human life, aquatic life and the life of other animals. For example, the corrosion of iron hulls in ships and the subsequent effects poses a serious threat to the lives of the people aboard.
The corrosion of oil pipelines poses a big threat to the people living in that area, as the subsequent breakdown and explosion of the pipeline could destroy lives. Also, corrosion of drill pipes could cause a breakage and explosion, leading to loss of lives and injury. Breakdown of bridges due to corrosion has caused the loss of lives and property1. Furthermore, airline accidents due to corrosion have caused the loss of many lives and people have lost their jobs due to loss of confidence by customers. A popular example is that of the Aloha airlines Boeing 737 air accident in 1988 where the plane lost a major portion of the upper fuselage in full flight at 24000 ft. above the ground. Although only one loss was recorded, several injuries were also recorded2.
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Corrosion has many effects on the environment with the fact that corrosion related failure of pipelines and oil tanks can cause serious problem for the environment as regards the pollution of lands, water and the air. Oil spills due to corrosion have caused loss of vegetation and aquatic lives. Many have lost their farmlands and means of livelihood due to corrosion related oil spill and other activities1.
In this research, a comparative study was carried out with tamarind and tropical almond leaves extracts on the corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in 1M hydrochloric acid with focus on maximizing the inhibition efficiency of the inhibitors.
1.2 MOTIVATION
Corrosion affects the integrity of materials, especially metals used in different industries. The oil industry is one of the most important industries in Nigeria, with oil being its main source of revenue. It is known that the industry makes use of metallic materials either as pipelines, gas tanks, oil rigs, or in well engineering. Ships and boats used in transporting materials offshore are also made using metals.
At the Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company (SNEPCo) dedicated base, it discovered that due to non-availability of space inside their warehouse some of their materials are being kept outside and get beaten by rain and sunshine. These materials get attacked by the extreme conditions and often corroded. The company thus invests a lot of time and money into keeping the materials in shape, by cleaning them and repainting them. Also, the company had to off-hire vessels because corrosion and other minor damages had made them unfit for sail. If the maximum efficiency is obtained in this research, the company could have an option of using cheap, easily available, and long-lasting inhibitors to preserve their metal equipment.
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1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project was to use the predicted concentrations of Tamarindus indica and Terminalia catappa leaves extracts to obtain maximum inhibition efficiencies of Tamarindus indica and Terminalia catappa leaves extracts on corrosion of stainless steel in 1 M HCl. The objectives of this project were:
1. To extract the Tamarindus indica and Terminalia catappa inhibitors from their leaves.
2. To study corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in 1M HCl using 0.9g/15mL, 1.1g/15mL, 1.3g/15mL, concentrations of the Terminalia catappa extracts at 30˚C, 40˚C, and 50˚C temperatures.
3. To study corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in 1M HCl using 2.4g/15mL, 2.3g/15mL, 5.4g/15mL concentrations of Tamarindus indica extracts at the same temperatures as Terminalia catappa.
4. To determine the inhibition efficiency of both leaves extracts on stainless steel in 1M HCl.
5. To determine the effects of temperature on the inhibition efficiency of the extracts and to calculate the adsorption kinetics of the extracts.
1.4 SCOPE OF PROJECT
This research was focused on the following scopes of study:
CHAPTER 1
This chapter looks into the introduction of the topic, the aim and objectives of the research, the problem to be solved in the research, the overview of the research, and motivation.
CHAPTER 2
This chapter examines different articles and researches on corrosion, its sources, and various ways that have been applied in the past and potential inhibition strategies by others. Factors
4
which affect the selection of a particular type of technique and inhibitor, for instance in what media, which inhibitor works best in, acidic, alkaline, saline or neutral. The inhibition mechanism is also covered here.
CHAPTER 3
This chapter deals with the materials/reagents used in carrying out the research and the procedure used in successfully carrying out the experiment. It also includes the different formulas and methods used in analyzing the results.
CHAPTER 4
This chapter contains the results and discussion on the weight loss measurements for the metals. These results include values from the calculations of the inhibition efficiency, corrosion rates, surface coverage, adsorption kinetics, and temperature effects. The graphs that compare these terms for the two extracts used are also shown.
CHAPTER 5
In this chapter, a summary of the whole research is discussed, the importance of the research is also emphasized and recommendations for improving this area of research are given as well.
1.5 RESEARCH OVERVIEW
1.5.1 Corrosion
Corrosion is the spontaneous oxidation or deterioration of the surface of a metal through the effects of its interaction with its environment. Corrosion was obtained from the Latin word “corrodere”, which means to “chew to pieces” or “eat away”. Mostly corrosion occurs as an electrochemical mechanism where the metal is oxidized and the oxidizing agent reduced simultaneously.

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