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- Name:A STUDY OF JOB SATISFACTION AND WORK ATTITUDE AMONG STAFF IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY: (CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC)
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This research work study job satisfaction and work attitude among staff in Banking Industry using UBA Plc as our case study in order to obtain relevant information of this research work, the usage of primary and secondary data were employed. Primary data were collected using fourty four questionnaires administered to staff of UBA Plc Akpakpava Branches, Benin City.
In our attempt to actualize our set goals, several past and related literature on the variables were consulted and based on the literature available, several research questions and objective of the study were raised. Data generated were analyzed using percentages and tables while the hypotheses of the study were tested using the Chi-Square statistical tool.
The major findings of the study were
- It was discovered that satisfaction does significantly have an impact on employee’s attitude to work.
- It was also discovered that job security and work conditions actually have a major influence on institutional performance.
- The findings also revealed that remuneration have a positive and negative effect on organizational productivity. The higher the remuneration of staff the more productivity and vice versa.
The following are some of the recommendations made in this study to ensure that employee are satisfied and have a positive work attitude for the organization to achieve its goals and objectives.
UBA Plc must ensure that Job satisfaction and work attitude of its employees are taken seriously as a top priority in her organizational policies, they should also ensure that workers are promoted as at when due, salaries and allowances attached to each job should be moderate and measure up to the level of performance of the employee. UBA Plc should provide its employees conducive working environments that will enable them perform adequately as well as making her employees to see the organization as a good career prospect where they can grow academically and see possibility of a future advancement of their career.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- 1 Background of the Research Study-
- 2 Statement of the Research Problem
- 3 Objectives of the Study
- 4 Hypothesis of the Research Study
- 5 Justification of the Research Study
- 6 Scope of the Study
- 7 Limitation of the Study
- 8 Structure of the Study
- 9 Research Methodology
- 10 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Concept of Job Satisfaction
2.2 Theories of Job Satisfaction
- Affect theory
- Two Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
- Dispositional Theory
- Job Characteristics Model
- Equity Theory
- Attitude Overview
- The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
- Self-Perception Theory
- Persuasion Theory
- Elaboration Likelihood Model
- Balance Theory
- Importance of Job Satisfaction to Workers
- Consequences of Dissatisfaction
- Employees Productivity and Satisfaction
- Assuming Job Satisfaction
- Measuring Job Satisfaction
- Dealing with Frustration
- The Immediate Work Environment
- Approaches to Research Design
- Population of the Study
- Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.3.1 Sampling Techniques
- Method of Data Gathering
- Description of the Research Instrument
- Method of Data Analysis
- Data Presentation
- Analysis of Data
- Analysis of Hypothesis Testing
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction to Discussion of Findings
5.1.1 Discussion of Findings
Today major changes are taking place in management philosophy and practice. Some managers refer to these changes as a new era, other as revolution. Whatever the label, people in the organizations are currently being challenged as never before to examine their basic assumptions about the nature and meaning of work as well as their day – to – day management styles and work habits.
One of the most pressing problems facing organization today is how to motivate employees to work more productively and to increase their feeling of job satisfaction, involvement and commitment.
- BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
According to Wendel French (1990), job satisfaction is describe as a person’s emotional response to aspect of work (such as pay, supervision, and benefits) or to the work itself others sees it as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job, and an attitude to one’s job. “The happier people within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be” (Wikipedia, 2009). Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which affect emotion, beliefs and behaviors. This argument by Weiss suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs and our behavior like motivation, job satisfaction and work attitude is a complex notion that manifests itself in different people (Wendell French, 1990). Whether job satisfaction and work attitude is high or low depends on a number of factors, including how well a person’s needs and wants are met through work, working conditions, the extent to which an individual defines himself or herself through work and individual personality traits. Wikipedia (2009), other influence on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups and the work itself.
On the other hand, attitude is a hypothetical construct that represent an individuals degree of like or dislike for an item. Unlike personality attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. Tesser (1993), has argued that hereditary variable may affect attitudes but believe that they may do so indirectly. According to some psychologists, most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.
For any organization to operate and function well and to achieve the aims and objectives for which it is set up, there must be workers working together in the work environment. The workers must put in their best or optimal performance. This can only happened or be done when the workers degree of likeness for his or her work or towards work is very high and positives and the workers are satisfied with the work environment and also behaviour as well as happy family relationship among themselves, and by extension the work itself and the organization.
Organization which has a dissatisfied work force has to contend with such costs as incessant strikes, lockouts, low innovation, poor performance etc. It also suffers high labour turnover, and absenteeism which in turn in the long-run, radical informal group, and pilfering of organization’s resources.
Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. As we move into the main research study, we will find out how these job satisfaction and work attitude actually work and how they can be used or applied to improve performance of this organization (UBA PLC).
It is in view of all these, that this study wants to study job satisfaction and work attitude among staff in the Banking industry using UBA PLC as case study.
History of United Bank for Africa Plc
Today’s United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA) is the product of the merger of Nigeria’s third and fifth largest banks, namely the old UBA and the erstwhile Standard Trust Bank Plc (STB) respectively, and a subsequent acquisition of the erstwhile Continental Trust Bank Limited (CTB). The union emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigeria Banking.
UBA Plc history is date back to the founding of the old UBA in 1961, and the erstwhile STB and CTB both in 1990. although today’s UBA emerged at a time of industry consolidation induced by regulation, the consolidated UBA was borne out of a desire to lead the domestic sector to a new era of global relevance by championing the creation of the Nigerian consumer finance market, leading a private/public sector partnership at supporting the acceleration of Nigeria’s economic development, and growing the institution from a banking to a one- stop financial services institution, while spreading its footprint across Africa to earn the reputation as the face of banking in the continent.
Today, the consolidated UBA is the largest financial services institution in West Africa with total assets in excess one trillion, six hundred million naira (over USD 14b) and more than six million (6m) customer accounts, operating out of 7 economies in the west, central and east African sub-regions- Nigeria, Ghana, Ugandan, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone. It has over seven hundred (700) retail distribution centres across Nigeria, its main operational base, 16 branches in Ghana, 5 branches in Ugandan, and 5 branches in Cameroon. Outside Africa, it also has presence in New York, Paris, Cayman Island and London.
Employee Promotion Approach Adopted By UBA
In line with its Best-Place –to – work initiative and an unyielding commitment to always reward excellence, United Bank for Africa (UBA) carry out an appraisal exercise.
The affected staff or staff to be rewards and/or promoted are selected through an appraisal exercise conducted using a new in-house developed performance management methodology which is based on the balanced scorecard framework that uses both financial and non-financial metrics to identify high performers in the Bank.
UBA has numerous employee engagement programmes such as marketing etc. where staff that has excelled in living the UBA Brand values of Humility, Empathy, Integrity, Resilience, and Customer Service are publicly celebrated and rewarded.
At the last annual CEO Awards held recently January,2009 to be precise, the Bank’s group Managing Director/CEO Mr. Tony Elumelu affectionately described the bank’s staff as “quality human capital and unique talents who power the UBA machine day and night”. “we take performance management very serious as a way of motivating staff to go the extra mile in living the UBA Brand value” he said.
- STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
In carrying out this research the statement of the research study will be stated in research question:
- Does the promotion approach adopted increase a positive work attitude and the level of job satisfaction among staff?
- Has job security influenced institutional performance?
- Has remuneration been able to take care of the problem of employees’ negative attitude to work?
- To what extent has working conditions impacted on workers attitude to work?
- Does employee social needs actually affects his/her satisfaction and attitude to work
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In view of the following, this study has its objectives as follows;
- To find out the impact of job satisfaction on employees attitude to work
- To determine the influence of job security on institutional performance.
- To examine the effect of remuneration on organizational productivity.
- To determine the impact of working conditions on workers attitude to work.
- To find out how employees social needs affect their satisfaction and attitude to work.
1.4 HYPOTHESIS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
A hypothesis is a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more variables (Spiegel,1992).
The following hypothesis shall direct the thrust of this study.
- H0: Job satisfaction has no impact on workers attitude.
H1: Job satisfaction has impact on workers attitude
- H0: Job security has no influence on institutional performance
H1: Job security has influence on institutional performance
- H0: Workers remuneration does not affect organizational performance.
H1: Workers remuneration does affect organizational performance.
- H0: Working conditions significantly do not affect workers attitude.
H1: working condition do significantly affect workers attitude.
- H0: Job satisfaction among workers is not dependent on their social needs
H1: Job satisfaction among workers is dependent on their social needs
1.5 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE RESEARCH STUDY
This study will be of relevance to the organization under study and any practicing managers in organization, the relevance and recommendation will enable United Bank for Africa Plc understand the phenomenon of job satisfaction and work attitude among staff in the organization.
All the information that will be provided in this research will help bank managers know how to create job satisfaction and atmosphere for positive work attitude among the staff.
The academic significant and justification of this study is that the findings and postulations will generate research interest on job satisfaction and work attitude. It will also act as a very good background for anybody, students or lecturers who one interest in motivating and developing human resources in organization.
Therefore I am of the opinion that it will contribute in no small measure to the development of banking services in Nigeria, while equally contributing to human capital.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research work is limited to the banking industry. Precisely United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc, Akpakpava branches Benin City. This study will examine job satisfaction and work attitude among staff in UBA Plc. In the course of this study, questionnaires will be distributed to the different categories of the workers in this service organization.
The study will cover issues like factors that influence job satisfaction and work attitude. Others issues the study will carefully look at are or includes the outcome of job satisfaction, effects of positive and negative work attitude on workers, consequences of dissatisfaction, implication for managers and human resource specialist and measurement of job satisfaction.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A number of constraints were faced in this course of the study.
Some of the respondents that were sampled did not return questionnaire.
This study is also constrains by time available to carryout the study, backed up with compromising one’s study.
Management reluctance to provide accurate and relevant information and data, unavailability of needed staff at every particular point of contact with company.
Finally, the costs involve in getting the samples and adequate literature material such as professional journals and magazines that could have made the work richer.
1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be organized in five chapter as follows:
- Review of related literature
- Research methods and procedures
- Data presentations analysis
- Summary, findings, conclusion and recommendation
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This research study is carried out using both primary and secondary data. The primary data includes questionnaire, observation of facts, and personal interview with UBA staff. The secondary data includes journals from within and outside the industry, materials from UBA plc, and materials from the internet and books from the library.
Percentage analysis and chi-square will be used in data analysis in this research study.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SATISFACTION: This is a feeling of pleasure or contentment experienced because one has achieved a goal.
MOTIVATION: Is the drive, force, or effort that induces or propels a person to behave in a particular way.
MANAGERS: They are people who take responsibility for controlling and utilizing the resources of the organization.
JOB SATISFACTION: This is a person’s emotional response to aspects of work (such as pay, supervision and benefits) or to the work itself (Wendell French 1990).
JOB EVALUATION: Is the process by which the relative values of jobs is determined and then linked to commensurate compensation (Dr. T. J. Akinmayowa).
STAFF APPRAISAL: any procedure which helps the collecting, checking, sharing, giving and using of information collected from and about people at work for the purpose of adding to their performance at work (Randell, G. A. et al, 1974).
JOB ENRICHMENT: It comprises more varied work content and more autonomy/responsibility in planning and carryout the work (Dr. T.J. Akinmayowa).
JOB DESIGN: This shows or draws how the job is to be done.
DISSATISFIERS: Things that causes discontentment or dissatisfaction to an individual.
ATTITUDE: This is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual’s degree of like or dislike for an item.
Wendell, F. (1990), Human Resource Management 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Brief, A. P. (1998), Attitude in and around organization, Thousand Oaks; CA: Sage
Akinmayowa, J. T. (2006), Human Resources “Critical Issues in Management and Organization Development”. Benin City: Nigeria Management Consultancy Forum.
Locke, E. A. (1976), “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction” in M. D. Dunnette, ed; Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand Mcnally