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- Name:A STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRY
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Over the years there have been stories of notorious oil spillages in the Niger Delta regions of the country, deposition of deadly industrial wastes into the seas at Lagos Lagoons and beaches, deposition of Biological and medical wastes in the Nigerian sea borders etc. which have led to death of sea and land animals including man in most cases as well as other environmental hazards; yet the perpetrators’ of such dastardly acts are most times not apprehended or adequately punished.
Such situations and occurrence as described above has high degree adverse effect on nature generally either on short term or long term basis.
Therefore prevention of such situations from occurring is best advocated for instead of control and management.
It is to this extent that only high technological expert systems such as Maritime information systems with accurate data processing, storage, retrieval and simulation as well as precise results and outputs can be used in effective protection of the Maritime environment and prevention of pollution occurrence in the country.
The research design employed in this work was a survey descriptive type in which means, frequency and percentages all in a tabular format were used in the analysis of data gathered from the respondents encountered in the process. The respondents used in the study were made up of 15 senior staffs and 33 junior staffs gathered from 5 departments of the Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA) Lagos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLE
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CONCEPTUAL REVIEW: INFORMATION SYSTEM AND MARITIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS
2.1. INFORMATION SYSTEM
2.2 INTER-RELATIONSHIPS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF ENDEAVOUR
2.3 TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
2.4 COMPONENTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
2.5 INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
2.6 MARINE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MARIS)
2.7 ROLES OF MARITIME INFORMATION SYSTEM IN COASTAL PROTECTION
2.8 INTEGRATION OF MARITIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION
MARINE POLLUTION AND PREVENTION IN NIGERIA
2.9 MARINE POLLUTION
2.9.1 TYPES AND MAJOR GLOBAL OF MARINE POLLUTION
2.9.2 MAJOR MARINE POLLUTANTS – METALS
2.9.3 MAJOR MARINE POLLUTANTS- SOLID WASTE
2.9.4 MAJOR MARINE POLLUTANTS – BIOLOGICAL
2.9.5 SOURCES OF POLLUTION FROM LAND
2.9.6 SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION IN NIGERIA
2.9.7 IMPACTS OF MARINE POLLUTION
2.9.8 COST OF MARINE POLLUTION
2.10 SOLUTIONS TO POLLUTION
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
- RESEARCH DESIGN
- INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
- METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
- METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS
4.1 RESEARCH QUESTION ONE
- RESEARCH QUESTION TWO
- RESEARCH QUESTION THREE
- SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Marine environment is one of earth’s most precious and delicate resources and there is a growing awareness amongst nations of the world that drastic and sustainable measures need to be adopted and implemented to protect it from further deterioration. Nigeria is a maritime nation with a coastline of approximately 853km on its southern border and a population of over 120 million inhabitants, 20% of which inhabit the coastal zone. The importance of the marine environment to Nigeria is underscored by the fact that about 90% of its international trade i.e. imports and exports are dependent on marine transport. Nigeria has about 9 major ports which are for navigational and administrative purposes divided into 5 Navigational Districts namely: Port Harcourt, Warri, Lagos, Calabar and Onne navigational districts. Ship traffic into these ports excluding tankers is estimated at approximately 3,500 vessels per annum. Out of the total traffic, ports within the Lagos area account for 50%, Rivers ports 25% and Delta ports 15%. Overall cargo throughput (excluding crude) is estimated at 22.23 million tones. The total number of passengers that pass through the sea ports is estimated at 1500 per year. Nigeria being a major oil producing and exporting country records approximately 1,000 petroleum tanker vessels calling at her ports annually, with an average tanker size of about 95.000 GRT.
All the vessels calling at these ports carry enormous amount of waste including bilge, sludge, garbage, sewage, chemical waste (toxic and non-toxic) and in the absence of Reception Facilities all the ship generated waste are discharged into the sea within the vicinity of the ports. Recent events including the oil spill resulting from collision of The Agulhas and The Asian Star, the Marina Bay rice pollution and Tank farm spillage at Tin Can Island of June 2002 together emphasize the problem of pollution in the ports. One must not forget the constant damage and threat to the port environment posed by industries like the Flour Mills, rice, salt and sugar factories located in the port area.
The focus of this research work is on application of Information systems in prevention of pollution in the Maritime industry.
Nigeria as we all know has no dry ports at the moment therefore our area of discourse would be limited to seaports and pollution of the marine environment within the vicinity of the Ports. We would adopt as a working definition the meaning given to the concept of marine pollution by the United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982 which provides as follows:
“Pollution of the marine environment means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects such as harm to living resources and marine life, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of the sea and reduction of amenities.”
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The use of expert systems in the forecast, proper management, prevention and control of dangerous and hazardous situations such as pollution, disease out break and natural disasters can never be over emphasized.
It is against this backdrop that this research work is designed to study the application of expert systems such Information systems in the prevention of man made disasters like Pollution in the Maritime industry of Nigeria.
- PURPOSE OF STUDY
Pollution in a lay man’s understanding could be any event, occurrence or situation that makes the environment very un-conducive to both man and animal for living.
The aim of this research work is to understudy the use of information systems in prevention of pollution in the maritime sector of the Nigerian economy.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Prevention they say is always better than cure; it’s as a result of this that this study when completed shall in a great way provide managers and operators of the Nigerian Maritime industry with a better scope and strategy to combat and prevent maritime pollution using Information systems.
To Africa and the world it shall be a master piece for use whenever a research of a related subject matter is to be embarked upon.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to reflect the objective of this study which is – application of information systems in the prevention of pollution in the Nigerian maritime industry.
- To what extent are maritime operations affected by application of information systems?
- Can Marine pollution be effectively prevented?
- Are there any positive impacts of information systems in Maritime pollution prevention?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research work is designed to study pollution prevention in the Nigerian Maritime industry through application of information systems.
The study revealed various riverine areas of the country and the pollution problems facing them, though oil related pollution was identified to be the most hazardous and reflective pollution on the nation maritime sector even as it occurs seldom nowadays.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The research study encountered many challenges ranging from scarcity of research materials, to short research duration and slim financial budget.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFORMATION SYSTEM: Information system is a collection of various components that accepts raw data (Input) transforms the collected data into usable and comprehensive information (Process) stores the processed information for future usage (Storage) and produces the initial raw data as comprehensive information that can be used in efficient decision making (Output).
MARITIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Maritime Information Systems are Hi-tech computerized systems used in network of maritime operations.
MIS: Maritime Information Systems
NOSDRA: National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency
NB: Add more keywords from this work here!
8th Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, Oil Pollution and the Sea. (October 1981).- Paul Usoro & Co – Maritime and Environment Section
Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 7(4):54-67 Published December, 2011 Abowei et al., 2011
ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FROM MARITIME TRANSPORTATION IN NIGERIA
Abowei1, J. F. N., Akaso2, A. A. and Bariweni3, P. A.