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ABSTRACT

 

This research aimed at fitting canonical correlation model that is capable of determining
whether literacy level, age, marital status and gender are risk factors for HIV/AIDs. The
data used is obtained from Heart to Heart center situated in General Hospital Minna,
Niger State in June 2013. The Statistical package used to analyze the data is NCSS
(Number Cruncher Statistical System) 2007 package and the result shows that the first
set of variables measured the correlation of 0.2972 with the proportion of variability of
50.7% and the second set measured the correlation of 0.1412 with the proportion of
variability of 49.3% . Hence, concluded that marital status and gender are risk factors
of HIV/AIDs and implies that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is higher among the married
men.. I finally recommended that there is a need for the government to enact a Law that
will make it mandatory for the two partners to undergo the HIV/AIDS test.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………………………. vi
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………… viii
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.2 Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.3 Aim and Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study …………………………………………………………….. 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 REVIEW OF LITERATURES …………………………………………………………………. 6
2.1 Information Impact on HIV/AIDS Awareness …………………………………………… 12
2.2 Concept of Artisans ……………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.3 Government Intervention in Nigeria …………………………………………………………. 13
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 SOURCES OF DATA ……………………………………………………………………………. 15
3.1 Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
3.2 Assumptions in Canonical Correlation ……………………………………………………… 16
3.3 Theoretical Foundations …………………………………………………………………………. 17
3.4 The Difference between Canonical Correlation Analysis and Ordinary
Correlation Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………. 23
3.5 Correlation and Covariance Matrices ……………………………………………………….. 24
3.6 Tests for Significance …………………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.6.1 Wilk’s lambda test …………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.6.2 Bartlett’s test …………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
3.7 Coding and Importing of Data …………………………………………………………………. 27
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3.8 Software for the Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….. 27
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS ………………………………………………………….. 28
4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
4.2 Bartlett’s Test ………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ……………………… 32
5.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
5.2 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
5.3 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
5.4 Recommendation …………………………………………………………………………………… 33
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………… 34
APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Since the discovery of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism
of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1983, the infection has attained
epidemic proportion globally. HIV/AIDS is an extraordinary kind of crisis; it is both an
emergency and a long-term development issue. Tumer and Unal (2000) assert that
(HIV/AIDS) is one of the most complex health problems of the 21st century. Despite
increased funding, political commitments and progress in expanding access to HIV
treatment, the AIDS epidemic continues to outpace every global response.
Today the AIDS epidemic has become a pandemic disease that is threatening the world
population. As the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread around the world at an
alarming rate, the number of people with this disease is been expected to grow
significantly by the end of this decade. Moreover according to UNAIDS (2006); an
estimated 24.7million people are living with HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa. Meyer
(2003) claims that HIV/AIDS which is acclaimed the fourth- leading cause of death
worldwide is estimated to have claimed 25million lives since the beginning of the
epidemic.
Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a viral disease caused by human
Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is usually found in body fluids like blood, semen,
vagina fluid, and breast milk of infected persons. The virus can be transferred from one
infected person to another, mostly through sexual intercourse and sharing of unsterilized
instruments like blades, knives, and syringes which had once been used by infected
persons. (Olaleye 2003)
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AIDS has rendered many children orphans, many of which were born with HIV
infection. AIDS is killing the most productive people in the population, widening the
level of development between developed and developing nations. It is also taking toll on
the health sector since a lot of fund is channeled towards HIV/AIDS prevention and
control. It has been observed that despite the many programmes organized to inform
people about the problem of HIV/AIDS, the rate of it infection continues to be on the
increase. (Omoniyi and Tayo-Olajubu 2006)
However, Cichocki (2010) Insists that, HIV testing is the first step to take when trying
to find out a person’s status. Never should one rely on symptoms of HIV to decide
whether one is infected. HIV testing is the only way to know for sure. The importance
of early diagnosis of HIV cannot be overstated. Decades of HIV and AIDS researchers
have proven that the earlier HIV is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and the
likelihood of a long and healthy life. Meanwhile, certain risk behaviors have been
associated with high HIV infection rate. These behaviors according to Anochie and
Eneh (2001) are either life style related or health-care provider risk. The life style
related risk behaviors include multiple sexual partners, prostitution, sex with prostitute
or casual partners, unprotected sex, intravenous, drug abuse and commercial blood
donation among others.
Moreover, various campaigns have been mounted by both governmental and non –
governmental association (NGOs) to curtail the spread of HIV/AIDS. Olaleye (2003)
posits that these campaigns focused on measures to prevent HIV/AIDS infection. The
measures include total abstainess from sex, use of condom to avoid infections from
unprotected sexual intercourse, screening of blood meant for transfusion, keeping to one
sexual partner, use of sterilized sharp object like blades, knives, needles / syringe,
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shaving and barbing instruments, Intending couples are also advised to do HIV/AIDS
test before being joined in marriage.
Omoniyi and Tayo-Olajubu (2006) submit that People diagnosed with AIDS may get
life-threatening diseases called opportunistic infection which are caused by microbes
such as viruses and bacterial that usually does not make healthy people sick. However,
What the HIV does is to gradually damage the immune system so that an infected
person would be vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and illnesses, which may eventually
lead to the total collapse of the immune system. It is at this point a person is said to be
suffering from AIDS.
As of 2012 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 3.1
percent. Nigeria has the second-largest number of people living with HIV. The HIV
epidemic in Nigeria is complex and varies widely by region. In some states, the
epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviors, while other states
have more generalized epidemics that are sustained primarily by multiple sexual
partnerships in the general population. Youth and young adults in Nigeria are
particularly vulnerable to HIV, with young women at higher risk than young men. There
are many risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV, including prostitution, highrisk
practices among itinerant workers, high prevalence of sexually transmitted
infections (STI), clandestine high-risk heterosexual and homosexual practices,
international trafficking of women, and irregular blood screening.
Nigeria is emerging from a period of military rule that accounted for almost 28 of the 47
years since independence in 1960. Consequently, the policy environment is not fully
democratized. Civil society was weak during the military era, and its role in advocacy
and lobbying remains weak. The size of the population and the nation pose logistical
and political challenges particularly due to the political determination of the Nigerian
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Government to achieve health care equity across geopolitical zones. The necessity to
coordinate programs simultaneously at the federal, state and local levels introduces
complexity into planning. The large private sector is largely unregulated and, more
importantly, has no formal connection to the public health system where most HIV
interventions are delivered. Training and human resource development is severely
limited in all sectors and will hamper program implementation at all levels. Care and
support is limited because existing staff are overstretched and most have insufficient
training in key technical areas to provide complete HIV services.
Epidemiologically, UNAIDS estimates worldwide that 40,000,000 persons are living
with HIV/AIDS, 18,500,000 (44%) of whom are women, and 3,000,000 (7.1%) of
whom are children. The most heavily affected area of the world is sub-Saharan Africa,
with almost 30,000,000 people infected with HIV.
South Africa has the largest population of HIV patients in the world, followed by
Nigeria and India. South & South East Asia are second worst affected; in 2007 this
region contained an estimated 18% of all people living with AIDS, and an estimated
300,000 deaths from AIDS.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
HIV/AIDS is being classified as dangerous disease and contribute to global health
crisis. The rate of HIV/AIDS infection is increasing despite measures taken by
government at federal, state and local levels. As a result of the danger of the disease,
this research work is carried out to investigate whether canonical correlation model is
capable of determining whether literacy level and gender are risk factors for HIV/ AIDs
in Niger State.
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1.2 Significance of the Study
This study is design to contribute knowledge to the understanding of HIV/AIDS. It is
also useful to government and nongovernmental organization for them to rate strict
measures to curtail the spread of the disease.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to fit a canonical correlation model that is capable of
determining whether literacy level and gender are risk factors for HIV /AIDS in Niger
State.
The above aim is achieved through the following objectives;
• To determine the contribution of the risk factors to the prevalence of HIV/AIDS
using canonical correlation.
• To determine the level of association between the canonical variates using
Wilk’s Lambda test.
To test for homogeneity of variances among the risk factors using Bartlet’s test.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research work is based on data obtain from General Hospital Minna. (Heart to
Heart centre, established, 2007) on HIV/AIDS and analyzed using Canonical correlation
model that is capable of establishing the relationship between two sets of variables
(Literacy level and Gender on one hand and Age, weight and marital status on the other
hand).
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