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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ORGANISATIONAL SIGNALS AND SUB-THEMATIC IDENTIFICATION ELEMENTS IN SELECTED NIGERIAN NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

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  • Name: A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ORGANISATIONAL SIGNALS AND SUB-THEMATIC IDENTIFICATION ELEMENTS IN SELECTED NIGERIAN NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
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ABSTRACT

The aim of this study thesis is to investigate organizational signals (textual cohesion) and sub-thematic identification (paragraph development) as the basic elements of writing to enhance textual unity and understanding (coherence) and the main objective is inquiry into the composition, readability and comprehension of newspaper articles by Nigerian journalists. Specifically, the research examines the textual organization, cohesive devices and paragraph development as the underlying elements for comprehensibility of written texts. The broader objectives include the identification of whether articles written by Nigerian journalists follow norms of English composition writing, comply with the rules of unity and coherence in essay writing, if the paragraphs are sufficiently developed to enhance understanding and whether reading is made smooth through the use of appropriate linking devices. Both authorial and topical works by various linguists and scholars including: Fairclough (1999), Haliday and Hasan (1976, 1985, 1994), Allerton, (1979), Stubbs, (1930), Crystal and Davy (1974), Bell, (1984), Oluikpe, (2002) Frank (2004), Rasheed (1990)in areas of text analysis, composition writing, newspaper language and functional use of English, gave insight into the procedure of the research. As an aspect of text linguistics, the data consists of twenty excerpts, four each from the five national papers selected for inquiry: i) Daily Trust, ii) The Guardian, iii) The Vanguard, iv) The Punch and v) The Nation. These different papers from which the sample texts are chosen contain the various types of essays necessary for our research. Their analysis has given answers to the research questions set. A descriptive analysis is undertaken to test the coherence features in the sampled newspaper essays. From the findings of the study, it is evident that articles by the Nigerian print media are foremost composed to inform their varied audiences. Thus, differences are found between composing an editorial and an ordinary news item because while the former is meant to satisfy a well-read audience, the latter is for all other readers without regard to their educational level. However, attempt is made in most excerpts sampled to follow the terms of English essay writing from the introduction to the conclusion. Hence, the selection and application of the requisite organizational signals and the relevant developmental patterns for sub-thematic identification which from our analysis depend on the type of essay that is, narrative, descriptive, argumentative or expository. Generally, analysis of the data has enabled therealization of the impact of single sentences as whole paragraphs on the unity and coherence of texts. Also, our analysis found out that the unity and coherence quality of all the samples investigated relies heavily on the kinds of linking devices used. On the whole, the findings reveal that differences in the excerpts are minimal.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement s- – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – viii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – iv
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – xviii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Preamble – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 5
1.2.1 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 6
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.5 Justification for the study – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the Research – – – – 9

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 10
2.1.1 Writing: An Overview – – – – – – 11
2.1.1 Language and Communication – – – – – 15
2.1.1.1 An Overview of Language – – – – – – 15
2.1.1.2 Characteristics of Language – – – – – – 17
2.1. 1.3. The Concept of Communication – – – – – 18
2.1.1.4 English for Specific Purposes (ESP) – – – – – 19
2.1.1.5 Writing and Discourse Analysis – – – – – 19
2.1.1.6 Text Analysis – – – – – – – – 22
2.1.2.0 Composition Writing – – – – – – – 24
2.1.2.1 Qualities of Good Essays – – – – – – 27
2.1.2.2 The Sentence Types – – – – – – – 29
2.1.2.3 The Paragraph: Structure and Development – – – – 32
2.1.2.4 Types of Essay Writing: – – – – – – 35
2.1.3.0 Cohesion and Coherence in Writing – – – – – 37
2.1.3.1 Cohesion: – – – – – – – – 37
2.1.3.2 Coherence — – – – – – – – 42
2.1.4.0 Newspaper Language — – – – – – – 48
2.1.4.1 Typical Features – – – – – – – 49
2.1.4.2 Use of English by Nigerian Newspapers – – – – 51
2.1.5.0 Varieties of English – – – – – – – 52
2.1.5.1 Standard English — – – – – – – 52
2.1.5.2 Good English – – – – – – – – 53
2.1.5.3 Nigerian English – – – – – – – 54
2.2 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 56

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 66
3.1.1 Research Design- – – – – – – – – 66
3.1.2 Research Variables – – – – – – – – 67
3.1.3 Data Collection: Sources and Methods – – – – – – 68
3.1.4 Sampling Method – – – – – – – – 69
3.2.0 Analytical Procedure – – – – – – – – 70

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction – – – – – 72
4.1.0 ND1Daily Trust – – – – – 73
4.1.1.0 Extract 1a. (News report) – – – – – 73
4.1.1.1 Analysis of the Organization – – – – 75
4.1.1.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 78
4.1.1.3 Analyses of Transitional Devices – – – – 81
4.1.2.0 Extract 1b: (News report) – – – – 82
4.1.2.1 Analysis of the Organizational Structure – – – – 83
4.1.2.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 85
4.1.2.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 86
4.1.3.0 Extract 1c. (News report) – – – – 87
4.1.3.1 Analysis of the Organizational Structure – – – – 88
4.1.3.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 89
4.1.3.3 Analysis of the transitional devices – – – – 91
4.1.4.0 Extract 1d. (Editorial) – – – – 91
4.1.4.1 Analysis of the Organizational Structure – – – – 93
4.1.4.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 95
4.1.4.3 Analysis of the Transitional Devices – – – – 97
4.2.1 Extract 2a (Editorial) – – – – 98
4.2.1.0 ND. 2 (The Guardian) – – – – 98
4.2.1.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 100
4.2.1.2 The analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 102
4.2.1.3 The analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – – 104
4.2.2.0 Extract 2b (News Report) – – – – 105
4.2.2.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 108
4.2.2.3 Analysis of the Transitional Devices – – – – 109
4.2.3.0 Extract 2c (News Report)- – – – – 110
4.2.3.1 Analysis of Organisational Structure – – – – 112
4.2.3.2 Analysis of the Paragraph Development – – – – 114
4.2.3.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 116
4.2.4.0 Extract 2d. (Editorial) – – – – 116
4.2.4.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 118
4.2.4.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 120
2.4.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – 122
4.3.0 ND.3 (Vanguard) – – – 123
4.3.1.0 Extract 3a (News Report) – – – – 123
4.3.1.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 124
4.3.1.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 126
4.3.1.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 128
4.3.2.0 Extract 3b (News Report) – – – – 129
4.3.2.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 130
4.3.2.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 131
4.3.2.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 132
4.3.3.0 Extract 3c (News Report) – – – – 133
4.3.3.1 Analysis of Organisational Structure – – – – 134
4.3.3.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 136
4.3.3.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 137
4.3.4.0 Extract 3d. (News report) – – – – 138
4.3.4.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 139
4.2.3.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 140
4.4.0 ND4 The Punch – – – – 142
4.4.1.0 Extract 4a (Editorial) – – – – 142
4.4.1.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 144
4.4.1.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 147
4.4.1.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 149
4.4.2.0 Extract 4b (news report) – – – 150
4.4.2.1 Analysis of Organisational Structure – – – – 151
4.4.2.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 153
4.4.2.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 154
4.4.3.0 Extract 4c (News Report) – – – – 155
4.4.3.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 156
4.4.3.2 The analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 157
4.4.3.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 158
4.4.4.0 Extract 4d (Editorial) – – – – 159
4.4.4.1 Analysis of Organisational Structure – – – – 160
4.4.4.2 The analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 161
4.4.4.3 The analysis of transitional devices – – – – 162
4.5.0 ND5: The Nation – – – – 164
4.5.1.0 Extract 5a (News Report) – – – – 164
4.5.1.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 165
4.5.1.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 167
4.5.1.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 169
4.5.2.0 Extract 5b (News report) – – – – 170
4.5.2.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 172
4.5.2.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 173
4.5.2.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 174
4.5.2.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 176
4.5.3.0 Extract 5c (News Report) – – – – 177
4.5.3.1 Analysis of Organisational Structure – – – – 178
4.5.3.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 179
4.5.3.3 Analysis of transitional devices – – – – 181
4.5.4.0 Extract 5d (News Report) – – – – 181
4.5.4.1 Analysis of the Organisational Structure – – – – 183
4.5.4.2 Analysis of Paragraph Development – – – – 184
4.5.4.3 Analysis of Transitional Devices – – – – 185
4.6. Discussion – – – 186

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
5.0 Introduction – – – 190
5.1 Summary – – – 190
5.2. Findings – – – 192
Bibliography – – – – 197
Appendix I Daily Trust – – – 203
Appendix II The Guardian – – – – 207
Appendix III Vanguard – – – – 211
Appendix IV The Punch – – – – 215
Appendix v – The Nation – – – 219

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1: Model Essay Plan – – 27
Fig.2: A Glossary of Transitional Devices – – – 45
Fig.3 Glossary of Techniques on Sentence Cohesion – 46
Fig. 4: Model Organizational Plan of the English Essay – – 61
Fig. 5: Model Paragraph of English Essays – – – 63
Fig. 6: Classification of Cohesive Devices – – – 65
Fig 7. Analysis of Organisation Extract 1A – – – 75
Fig. 8 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 1A – – – 78
Fig.9 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 1A – – 81
Fig. 10 Analysis of Organisation Extract 1B – – 83
Fig. 11 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 1B – – 85
Fig. 12 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 1B – – 86
Fig. 13 Analysis of Organisation Extract 1C – – 88
Fig. 14 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 1C — – – 89
Fig. 15 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 1C – – – 91
Fig. 16 Analysis of Organisation Extract 1 D – – – – 93
Fig. 17 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 1D – – 95
Fig. 18 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 1D – – – 97
Fig. 19 Analysis of Organisation Extract 2A – – – – 100
Fig. 20 Analysis of Paragraph Development 2A – – – 102
Fig. 21 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 2A – – – 104
Fig. 22 Analysis of Organisation Extract 2B – – – – 106
Fig. 23 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 2B – – – 108
Fig. 24 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 2B – – – 109
Fig. 25 Analysis of Organisation Extract 2C – – 112
Fig. 26 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 2C – – 114
Fig. 27 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 2C – – – 116
Fig. 28 Analysis of Organisation Extract 2D – – – 118
Fig. 29 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 2D – – 120
Fig. 30 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 2D- – – 122
Fig. 31 Analysis of Organisation Extract 3A – – – – 124
Fig. 32 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 3A – – 126
Fig. 33 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 3A – – – 128
Fig. 34 Analysis of Organisation Extract 3B – – – – 130
Fig. 35 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 3B – – 131
Fig. 36 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 3B – – – 133
Fig. 37 Analysis of Organisation Extract 3C – – – – 134
Fig. 38 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 3C – – 136
Fig. 39 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 3C – – – 137
Fig. 40 Analysis of Organisation Extract 3D – – – – 139
Fig. 41 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 3D – – – 140
Fig. 42 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 3D – – – 142
Fig. 43 Analysis of Organisation Extract 4A – – – – 145
Fig. 44 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 4A – – 147
Fig. 45 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 4A – – – 149
Fig. 46 Analysis of Organisation Extract 4B – – – – – 152
Fig. 47 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 4B – – 154
Fig. 48 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 4B – – – 155
Fig. 49 Analysis of Organisation Extract 4C – – – – 158
Fig. 50 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 4C — – 159
Fig. 51 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 4C – – – 160
Fig. 52 Analysis of Organisation Extract 4D – – – – 163
Fig. 53 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 4D – – 164
Fig. 54 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 4D – – – 165
Fig. 55 Analysis of Organisation Extract 5A – – – – 167
Fig. 56 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 5A – – 169
Fig. 57 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 5A – – – 171
Fig. 58 Analysis of Organisation Extract 5B – – – – 175
Fig. 59 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 5B – – 176
Fig. 60 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 5B – – – 178
Fig. 61 Analysis of Organisation Extract 5C – – – – 180
Fig. 62 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 5C – – 181
Fig. 63 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 5C – – – 183
Fig. 64 Analysis of Organisation Extract 5D – – – – 185
Fig. 65 Analysis of Paragraph Development Extract 5D – – 186
Fig. 66 Analysis of Transitional Devices Extract 5D – – – 187

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED
REF – Reference
Conj – Conjunction
L/Coh – Lexical Cohesion
Subs – Substitution
Def – Definite
Pron – Pronoun
R/Pron – Reflexive Pronoun
Art – Article
Dem – Demonstrative

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Preamble
This initial chapter is an introduction to the research on text coherence as a component of discourse analysis in linguistics.The main focus of the study is on the analysis of relatedness of the elements of writing in newspaper essays in the Nigerian context. It is, therefore, worthwhile to note from the onset that good writing is that in which ideas are properly connected so that readers can move easily from one thought to the other. As such, the appropriate usage of organizational signals or, more precisely, transitional words or linkers by journalists to portray the movement of ideas in a text is one of the intricacies in the use of written language which this thesis attempts to investigate. Hence, this chapter contains the general background to the study, the statement of the research problem, the research questions and the scope of the study.

1.1 Background to the Study
As an aspect of knowledge, writing constitutes a critical nexus in the linguistic and communicative development of mankind because unlike speaking, writing needs to be taught and learnt formally. In spite of its complexities, writing documents ideas, which are usually meant to educate, convince, persuade, entertain or inform. All these can only be achieved by the unity of the topic through the use of cohesive devices to attain coherence. Thus, meaning is effectively realised. The success of any piece of writing, therefore, depends on the effective organisation of all its parts: letters, words, sentences and paragraphs through which ideas flow.
According to Eko (1999), there are three major qualities of efficient organisation: unity, coherence and paragraph development. And, that for effective realisation of these qualities in continuous writing, transitional expressions such as repeating key words and phrases, using
pronoun references as well as parallel forms is all the more compelling and must be applied with expertise. Their usage and function in newspaper articles particularly, news reports and editorials, selected from some Nigerian newspapers constitute the base of the present thesis. Elements of written compositions such as the organisation, paragraph development and discourse markers or linkers, would be identified and closely studied for the textual analysis of excerpts from the following newspapers: Daily Trust, The Guardian, The Vanguard, The Punch and The Nation. Precisely, therefore, the appropriate application of transitional elements to express sequence, emphasis, concession, contrast, similarity, etc will form the basis of our analysis. Thus, all the attributes of thematic unity in written English composition, with particular reference to the writing elements employed for the smooth flow of thought and the subsequent ease of readability, are thoroughly investigated. Consequently, news articles as produced by journalists of the Nigerian print media to whom English is a second language form the bulk of the research population and sample.
The choice of the language of the media via selected Nigerian newspaper texts stems from the researcher‟s intention to work on more practical writings rather than theoretical classroom essays. Also, some news essays could go for academic discourses possessing both the form and content of formal written English compositions. In other words, they are characterised by the same academic procedures of school essay writing involving: “various tasks from choosing a question; to gathering information; to writing an argument; to reworking your ideas: to presenting and managing your time.‟ (Frank, 2004:5).
From the aforementioned, the most salient feature of this study is an inquiry into linguistic coherence in written English essays as found in newspaper articles of the Nigerian print media. Historically, the English Language has served the purpose of both the missionary and the British colonialists in the country. And up to date, it has remained a useful means of serving some communicative needs in our multilingual society, among which is the language of most newspapers. This is in fact, not only of great interest to this study but also a necessary argument as text coherence for ease of readability and comprehension in an environment where English functions as a second language, is subjected to investigation.
It is against this background that English language will for long, remain the lingua Franca of Nigeria because it is the most qualified to be used for inter- ethnic interaction and for specific purposes like the mass media. Though some indigenous languages are continuously being developed to meet the communicative needs of the nation, much is yet to be done to come to terms with standardization in orthography, syntax or even, national as well as its international acceptance. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that the goal of media essay writers in Nigeria is to be able to communicate their message using the English Language correctly. Most studies in the use of the English Language by news writers in Nigeria condemn their lack of effectiveness and clarity as they appear too „bookish‟. Furthermore, linguists such as Steven (1965), Tomori (1974), and Ubahakwe (1979), are categorical in their condemnation of „the dullness and pompous nature’ of compositions by Nigerian news writers.
Textual analysis as an aspect of discourse analysis requires the knowledge of what a text is. In a nutshell, a text, according to Halliday and Hasan (1976), means any spoken or written passage of whatever length that forms a unified whole. They view a text as language in use with semantic implication that is characterized by meaning rather than form. Most importantly, the text, as a functional entity, is an instance of living language within the context of situation. To Halliday and Hasan (1976), also: any piece of language that is operational, functioning as a unity in some context of situation, constitutes a text. It may be spoken or written, in any style or genre, and involving any number of active participants. It will usually display a form of consistency that is defined by the concept of register: a consistency in the meaning styles or type of semantic configuration which embody its relations to its environment. In other words, a text is usually reasonably homogeneous, at least in those linguistic aspects which most closely reflect and express its functional relationship to its setting. (Halliday and Hasan1976:293-4)
Thus, the newspaper essays chosen for the present research are texts worthy of any form of inquiry since they represent the realization of meaning socially and contextually.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
As an art that comes over a period of time with practice, writing, as a representation of thought and words, cannot be done meaningfully without adequate training. Consequently, the crux of this study is whether the Nigerian journalist using English as his medium for transmitting messages is able to compose newspaper articles that are unified and coherent enough to aid comprehension by allowing for a smooth progression of thought as well as making reading easy and straightforward.
The realization of both meaning and comprehension emanates from the use of transitional devices that signal the movement of one sentence to another as well as one paragraph to the other and how the entire composition relates to the main theme of discussion. Likewise, a discussion on the unique development of paragraphs as to the relationship between each word, phrase or sentence to the topic sentence of each sub-theme would be advanced to explicate the impact of such terms on the structure and semantics of a piece of writing.Thus, the description and explication of common transitional devices as used by Nigerian authors of newspaper articles is the problem that this investigation attempts to resolve.

1.2.1 Research Questions
The following research questions are therefore set:
i. To what extent are most Nigerian newspaper articles deficient of the basic elements needed in writing good essays in English?
ii. How do the lack of appropriate connectivity of thought and in effective use of linking devices affect the delivery of the required message of reports and other features composed by some journalists in Nigerian newspapers?
iii. Why do uncorrelated paragraphs or sub-themes hamper the comprehension of some Nigerian newspaper articles?
vi. To what extent is reading made uninteresting because paragraphs are not fully developed and unified?

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to do a linguistic analysis of organisational signals and sub-thematic identifications as the basic elements for coherence in writing using Nigerian newspaper articles as samples. The objectives of the study therefore are to:
i. Identify whether articles in Nigerian newspapers follow conventions of Standard English composition writing,
ii. Establish whether Nigerian journalists observe the rules of unity and coherence in essay writing,
iii. Determine whether sub-themes or paragraphs are developed sufficiently to enhance comprehension; and
iv. Ascertain if transitional devices are properly used to make reading smooth.

1.4 Significance of the Study
The relevance of the study goes beyond a mere academic exercise to drawing the attention of Nigerian journalists to the need to compose unified, coherent and fully developed reports for effective consumption by their readers. Also, it is to serve as resource material for academic input.
Furthermore, this study throws more light on the salient attributes of transitional words in making the movement of thought smooth and cohesive for journalists and writers alike. The various linking devices are highlighted to make clear their use and importance in composition writing. Each word, phrase, sentence or paragraph is properly scrutinized to explain its relationship with that before or after it. Hence, allowing writers of different texts in the English language, particularly the print media, to be more conscious of the wholeness of their end products.
Also, this study would be of immense advantage to teachers, speech writers, readers and other users of English as a second or foreign language. To all, this inquiry into the application and function of discourse markers will pave way for further search for knowledge in the use of writing for mass communication-particularly and the mostly eclectic Nigerian newspapers.

1.5 Justification for the Study
The essence of this research on unity and coherence in newspaper texts cannot be over exaggerated. Foremost, since writing is an academic pursuit, the work can serve as a potential referential document on composing newspaper articles in the Nigerian context. Also, it can aid in the repositioning of the newspaper industry as a whole. With emphasis on the elements of writing, the research will in no small measure throw light to the need for more criticism on the application of standards to essay writing for mass consumption generally. The dissertation whose content is more structural is a sway from the over-flogged ideological investigation into newspaper compositions. In this vein, the work will go a long way to enrich its kind on the use of English for Specific Purposes {ESP}.

1.6 The Scope and Delimitation of the Research
This study is neither conclusive on essay writing nor a critique of the application of the elements of discourse by Nigerian newspaper journalists. The premise of the investigation therefore revolves around the analysis of compositions and the explication of the functions of the organization, paragraph development and transitional devices as used by newspaper authors in the Nigerian context.
Consequently, only four excerpts are extracted for analysis from each of the five national newspapers selected for this thesis viz: Daily Trust, The Guardian, The Vanguard, The Punch and The Nation. Furthermore, papers, journals, theses and books on writing in general and newspaper writing in particular are synthesized for utmost review of the necessary literature for the study. Also, a lot had been done to as much as possible measure to the norms of Standard English only.

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