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- Name: ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN MICRO FINANCE BANKING (A CASE STUDY OF EVERGREEN MICRO FINANCE BANK NIGERIA, LTD, ENUGU)
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Every organization including bank registered under the Nigerian company law having statutory responsibility of profit and loss account together with statement of assets and liabilities at the end of its accounting period, to its members shareholders the public and other uses including the government accounting system means the system of recording financial transaction in an organization. It could also be referred to as an internal control system in an organization depending on the nature of business undertaken by the organization monetary terms and this requires proper recording of receipts and payments of funds. It is worthy to note here that any default in the accounting system of an organization could lead to business failure. In addition banks with the nature of its services dealing with money are expected to maintain any up to date record of its transaction with or on behalf of its customers the objectives of providing accounting information for decision making cannot be achieved if there is no adequate accounting system in place. In the course of this research work the following problems will be considered. The effects of inadequate accounting system in banking operation and more. In order to do further justices to the matter that will raise in this work primary and secondary sources of information will be used samples size of the study will be determines using this Bowles rules questionnaires will be designed in such a way to solicit information both this management and consumers as to confirm answers to the research as to question listed down in chapter one data presentation and a detailed analysis of data collected from this research work will be carried out. In summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion into five chapters.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Objectives of the study
- Research Questions
- Significant of the study
- Scope and Limitations of the Study
- Review of Related Literature
- Historical Background of the Evergreen Micro
Finance Bank Nigeria Limited
2.2 Meaning of Accounting System
2.3 Banking Operation in Evergreen Micro Finance
2.4 Uses of Accounting Information Providing
2.5 Balance Sheet Structure of Evergreen Micro
2.6 Benefits of Proper and Adequate Record Keeping
- Effect of Inadequate Accounting System
- Research design and methodology
3.1 Sources of Data
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample Size Determination Technology
3.4 Location of Data
3.5 Method of Investigation
3.6 Data Treatment Technique
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
- Data presentation and analysis.
4.1 Analysis of Response to Questionnaire
- Summary of findings, conclusion and Recommendation.
- Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Accountancy embraces the installation of book-keeping and accounting systems, the writing up of account and the preparations of every kind of financial statement from the simplest receipts and payments of small club to the published accounts of large public companies. It is one of the main work of the accountant in practice to provide client both large and small with necessary advice as to the most appropriate accounting system to in tall what will provide management with up-to date information.
According is always said to be the language of business. Every organization including bank registered under the Nigerian company law, having statutory responsibility f profit and loss account together with statement of the assets and liabilities at the end of its accounting period, to its members shareholders, the public and other users including the government. Accounting system means the system of recording financial transactions in an organization. It could also be referred as an internal control system in an organization depending on the nature of business undertaken by the organization. This is because financial transactions are qualified in monetary terms and this requires proper recording of receipts and payment of funds. It is worthy to note here that any default in the accounting system of an organization could lead to business failure.
In addition, banks by virtue of nature of its services dealing with money are expected to maintain an-up-to-date record of its transactions with or on behalf of its customers.
However, in micro finance bank, this responsibility can be effectively discharged if there is an adequate system of account put in place for recording day to day transactions of the bank. Besides, accounting is not only concerned with recording of transactions but also with the use to which the records are put, their analysis and interpretations for use in making decisions not only for the management usefulness but also to the members and would be investors, government agencies etc.
Recent researchers have shown that one of the main causes of indigenous business failure in the country is due to the failure to maintain proper accounting records. Therefore, these purposes can only be achieved in the light of good design and application of sound accounting system. Thus, the scope of this research work is to make appraisal of relevance and adequacy of accounting system in micro finance banking using “Evergreen micro finance bank Nigeria ltd as a cases study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Accounting being a profession referred to as service activity and accounting as often termed to be the language of business, therefore the importance of accounting system in any organization cannot be overemphasized. The objectives of providing accounting information for decision making cannot be achieve if there is no adequate accounting system in place. In the course of this research work, the following problems will be considered:
- The effects of inadequate accounting system in banking operation.
- Unavailability of timely accounting data.
iii. The falsification of account in the banking sector.
- Nonchalant attitude of the management towards the information provided by the accounting system.
- Poor decision-making
- Poor accounting record
vii. Poor audit problem
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To determine the impact of accounting system in micro finance banking.
- To determine whether the strategies used by micro finance bank in their accounting system have been very efficient and effective.
iii. To evaluate the factors that will limit the efficacy of micro finance banks in their efficient application of accounting system in their banking operations or activities.
- To assess the role9s) of accounting system in proving the activities of micro finance bank.
- To assess whether they have efficient and effective machinery to implement her planned programmes.
- To find out whether accounting system will provide timely accounting data for management decision making.
vii. To find out whether it will facilitate banking activities.
viii. To make recommendations on how to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of accounting system in micro finance banking.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following question forms the basis of the frame work for carrying out this research study.
- Do accounting system have any imp[act in micro finance banking?
- Do micro finance bank have efficient machinery to implement it planned programmes for efficient accounting system?
- Do micro finance hanks make use of effective and efficient accounting system?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
As it is a known fact that accounting system plays very important role in the life of a business organization, it is termed the determinant factor which determines whether business would fail or survive depending on the manner in which the particular organization records its financial transactions. Therefore, the significance of this project research work is to provide:
- Management with the importance of accounting information towards ensuring profitability and efficiency in business management.
- The relevance of accounting system in micro finance banking.
iii. Evaluation of the role(s) played by management in ensuring adequate accounting system in banking operation
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to Evergreen micro finance bank Nig. Ltd here in Enugu. The research cannot cover the entire population of the bank hence; a sample will be drawn from selected department in the bank.
The major factors limiting the extent of this research work are time available for the conduct of the research and inadequate financial resources and those encountered in the course of data collection.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Deferred tax: This is defined to include taxes due on income which is not taxable within 12 months of the current year as a result of differences between the tax profits and the reported profit.
- Deposits: This means all deposit liabilities of banks including other accounts and placements by other banks, current and time deposits.
iii. Dividend: This is referred to the total dividend paid to either the ordinary shareholders or the preference shareholders.
- Earnings per share: This computed as profit after taxation less preference dividend by the number or ordinary and founders shares outstanding. To enhance comparability, all shares are assumed to have a per value of one Naira.
- General Reserves: This includes allover reserves like profit and loss balances exchange revaluation reserves and other reserves.
- Interest margin: This is the net of interest income received and paid.
vii. Investment: This includes investment in all calls money, fixed deposit, negotiable certificates of deposits with other banks, bankers acceptances, quoted and unquoted investments.
viii. Loans and advances: All loans and advances given to customers, the advances net of provision is used.
- Lateral Acquisition: This is the investigating in other types of business apart from banking.
- Bills of Exchange: This simply means an unconditional order writing address by one person to another signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand, or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to, or to the order of a specified person or to the bearer.
- Cheque: A Cheque may be defined as a bill of exchange drawn on a banker payable on demands.
xii. Drawee: This is the bank on whom the cheque is drawn.
xiii. Payee: This is the beneficiary of an order cheque or the bearer of a cheque.
xiv. Open cheque: An open cheque is one that can be cashed over the canter.
- Cross cheque: A crossed cheque is one that cannot be cashed over the canter, it has to be paid into an account.
xvi. Profit after taxation: This is profit before taxation. Less taxation charged.
xvii. Capital Reserves: This includes all reserves that is no longer available for distribution as cash dividends like loan, stock redemption accounts, deposit for shares and appropriation for bonus issues.
xviii. Contra Assets and liabilities: These are contingent liabilities arising in the normal cause of business. These commitments may be acceptances, guarantees and other such obligations on behalf of customers. The bank will normally have a corresponding contingent asset due from the customers.
xix. Fixed Asset: This includes asset purchased for lease to customer where they are classified as fixed assets.
- Share capital: This includes all issued share capital distinguishing between ordinary and preference shares.
xxi. Shareholders fund: this is the total of share capital statutory capital and general reserves.
xxii. Profit before taxation: This represents gross earnings, less all expenses, including loan, less provision but before taxation.
xxiii. Net Asset per share: This is the total shareholders, fund, less preference shares, divided by the number of ordinary share
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