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AIR INJECTION STUDIES FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY is a complete chemical engineering project topic and material for MSc final year students in Nigeria. See the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one below. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

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ABSTRACT FOR THIS COMPLETE PROJECT WORK TITLED: AIR INJECTION STUDIES FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Conventionally, air injection has been used for recovery of heavy crude oil in the production field, but studies have shown that depletion of light crude oil in the reservoir leads to abandonment of such wells. Hence, this work studied the kinetics and combustion of light crude oil in-situ the reservoir to understand their potentials for high-pressure air injection (HPAI) enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Advanced thermo-kinetic simulation and Pressure-Volume-Temperature tools (AKTS and PVTsim) were coupled with non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements and Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) for the studies. The combustion and kinetics of three (3) light crude oils obtained from Offshore of Newfoundland, Canada were precisely described by the methods. It was observed that the crude with the lowest API of 30.214 had the lowest enthalpy change of 10.9 J/g and the highest onset oxidation temperature of 220 oC, while the crude with the highest API gravity of 46.963 had the highest enthalpy of 24.6 J/g and the lowest onset oxidation temperature of 140 oC. Effect of 10% water saturation of one of the crude samples (Sample A) was studied and it was observed that there was increase in the onset oxidation temperature by 40 oC and lowering of the enthalpy change by 9 J/g. These findings provided evidence that the versatile Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermograms when coupled with kinetic simulation technique can yield reliable results with respect to oil recovery with high correlation coefficient (r > 0.9). This reliable information such as onset, peak and endset temperatures with their respective heat flow patterns, could then be used to provide precise thermo-kinetic parameters. Kinetic triplets such as activation energy, pre-exponential and the reaction model necessary for reservoir screening in an air injection EOR process can also be accurately determined. Mine tailings containing high pyrrhotite content were
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then used as catalyst to study its effect on the onset oxidation temperature of the crude oils using ARC. An amount of 20% tailings in crude oil lowered the average onset oxidation temperature from 148 oC to 116 oC. It also had the widest oxidation temperature range of 63 oC between the onset and endset temperature, as well as the highest pressure drop of 2.4 bar, which signifies high conversion in the crude oil oxidation reaction as well as production of miscible flue gas which favoured enhanced oil recovery process. Products of air combustion products in-situ was studied as an injectant in a light oil Nigerian reservoir using a simulated slim tube experiment and was observed than flue gas products from air oxidation at high temperature and pressure favoured enhanced oil recovery.

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THIS COMPLETE PROJECT WORK TITLED: AIR INJECTION STUDIES FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Cover Page ……………………………………………………………………………………….I Fly Page………………………………………………………………………………………….II Title Page………………………………………………………………………………………..III Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………… …IV Certification……………………………………………………………………………………….V Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………. ..VI Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………VII Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….. … VIII Table of Content……………………………………………………………………………………X List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………….XIII List of Tables.……………………………………………………………………………………XV List of Plate…………………………………………………………………………………….XVI List of Appendices……………………………………………………………………………..XVII Abbreviation, Definitions, Glossary and Symbols ………………………………………..…XVIII
1.0 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………..……………………..1
1.1 Preamble…………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Problem statement……………….…………………………………………………………2
1.3 Justification of research……………………………………………………………………3
1.4 Aims and Objectives of Research…………………………………………………………4
1.5 Scope of Research …………………………………………………………………………..4
2.0 LITERATURE RVIEW……………………………………………………………………..6
2.1 Oil Recovery Processes….…………….…………………………………………………….6
2.1.1 Water drive reservoir……………………………………………..…………………7
2.1.2 Gas cap drive reservoir……………………………………………..………………7
2.1.3 Solution gas reservoir …………………………………………………..………….8
2.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) concept…………………………………………………..9
2.3 Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR) Methods…………………………………………………12
2.3.1 Hot water injection ………………………………………….…………..12
2.3.2 Steam injection (Huff and Puff)…..……………………………………….13
2.4 Air Injection for Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR)…………………………………………14
2.4.1 In-situ combustion ………………………………………………………15
2.4.2 Light oil air injection…………………………………………………….16
2.5 Kinetics of Thermal EOR …………………………………………………………………………………….16
2.5.1 Combustion reaction of crude oil …………………………………………………….17
2.5.2 Oxidation of sulphur containing crude oils…………………..………….18
2.5.3 Oxidation of mercaptans…………………………………………………20
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2.5.4 Oxidation of aliphatic/cyclic suphides…………………………………20
2.5.5 Air injection for reservoir oxidation……………………………………21
2.5.6 Amount of Air Required for EOR……………………………………….21
2.6 Arrhenius Studies of EOR Kinetics …………………………………………………………………22
2.6.1 Arrhenius studies of EOR kinetics using O2 consumption bases………………………………………………………………………………………….23
2.7 Kinetics of Iso-Conversional Methods ……………………………………………………………..25
2.7.1 Differential (Friedmans’s) ……………………………………………………………..25
2.7.2 Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis …………………………………………………………..31
2.7.3 ASTM E698…………………………………………………………………………………32
2.8 Non Thermal Methods…………………………………………………………………………………….32
2.8.1 Vaporising gas drive ……………………………………………………………………..35
2.8.2 Condensing gas drive ……………………………………………………………………36
2.8.3 Immiscible gas drive ……………………………………………………………………..37
2.9 Reservoir Fluid Studies and Experiment……………………………………………..38
2.9.1 Primary Tests…………………………………….………………………39
2.9.1.1 Specific gravity tests…………………………………….……….39
2.9.1.2 Gas-oil ratio tests……………………………………….……….40
2.9.2 Routine hydrocarbon oil routine tests ……………………………………41
2.9.2.1 Compositional analysis od reservoir fluids…………………………41
2.9.2.2 Constant composition expansion…………………………………….41
2.9.2.3 Differential Liberation tests……………………………………………..43
2.9.2.4 Separator tests………………………………………………………….44
2.9.2.5 Constant volume depletion tests (CVD).………………………….45
2.9.3 Special Laboratory PVT tests…………………………………………….47
2.9.3.1 Slim tube experiment……………………………………………..47
2.9.3.2 Swelling tests…………………………………………………………49
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS….……………………………………………………………….50
3.1 Material and Equipment………………………………………………………………….50
3.1.1 Materials and utilities….…………………………………………………..51
3.1.2 Equipment…………………………………………………………………52
3.1.3 Experimental Procedure ………………………………………………….52
3.1.4 Viscosity determination …………………………………………….……53
3.1.5 Specific heat capacity determination……………………………………..53
3.1.6 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests ……………..……….….54
3.1.7 Accelerating rate Calorimeter (ARC) tests………………………………..54
3.1.8 Mine tailings preparation…………………………………………………57
3.1.9 Mineral liberation analyser (MLA) for mine tailings studies……….……59 3.1.10 PVTSim19 and Design Expert software simulation for oil recovery analysis……………………………………………………………………60
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4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..…………………….…………………………………….61
4.1 Properties of crude oil………………………………………………………….……….61
4.2 Thermal behaviours of Crude Oils using DSC………………………………..………62
4.3 Thermal Kinetics of DSC Thermograms of Crude Oils..…………………….………..63
4.4 The use of Mine Tailings as catalysts in crude oil oxidation reaction……….…………76
4.5 Effect of Reservoir Conditions on Oil Recovery on Nigerian Oils……..….…………87
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.……………..…………………………..91
5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………….……..91
5.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………….…….92
REFERENCES……..…………………………………………………………….…….………..93 APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….105
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List of Figures
Page CHAPTER 2
Figure 2.1 Reservoir classification based on drive mechanism…………………………………8
Figure 2.2 Classification of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)…………………………………11
Figure 2.3 Steam or Hot water injection………………………………………………………13
Figure 2.4 Air Injection Route in thermal EOR Process …………………………………….14
Figure 2.5 An air injection process diagram…….…………………………..……………….15
Figure 2.6 Relationship of the reaction progress α vs time for reaction models………………….26

Figure 2.7 Schematic representation of miscible displacement………………………………34
Figure 2.8 Ternary diagram illustrating miscible drives…………….………………………..35
Figure 2.9 Vaporising gas drives……………………………………………………………..36
Figure 2.10 Condensing gas drive……………………………………………………………37
Figure 2.11 Immiscible gas drive…………………………………………………………….38

Figure 2.12 Schematic diagram illustrating method for determining Gas to Oil ration………41

Figure 2.13 Schematic diagram of a constant composition expansion experiment ………….43

Figure 2.14 Schematic diagram of a Differential liberation experiment………………………44

Figure 2.15 Schematic diagram of a three-stage separator experiment ……………………….45

Figure 2.16 Schematic representation of a constant volume depletion test ………………….46

Figure 2.17 Schematic diagram of a slim tube apparatus…………………………………….48

Figure 2.18 Schematic representation of swelling test……………………………………….50

CHAPTER 3
Figure 3.1 The Algorithm Logic of Heat-Wait-Seek Operation in ARC………….……………54
CHAPTER 4

Figure 4.1 DSC thermograms of crude oil samples at 10K/min ……………………….……….62

Figure 4.2 Reaction Progress as a function of Temperature for Sample A………………………64

Figure 4.3 Reaction Progress as a Function of Temperature for Sample B………………………64

Figure 4.4 Reaction Progress as a Function of Temperature for Sample C………………………65

Figure 4.5 Reaction Progress as a Function of Temperature for Sample A*……………………65

Figure 4.6 Reaction rate for Sample A at different ramp rates. ………………………….………67

Figure 4.7 Reaction rate for Sample B at different ramp rates. ……………………….…………68

Figure 4.8 Reaction rate for Sample C at different ramp rates. …………………….……………68

Figure 4.9 Reaction rate for Sample A* at different ramp rates. ….……………………….……69

Figure 4.10 Apparent Activation Energy of Sample A based on ASTM-E698………….……….70

Figure 4.11 Apparent Activation Energy of Sample B based on ASTM-E698…………….……71

Figure 4.12 Apparent Activation Energy of Sample C based on ASTM-E698………….…………71

Figure 4.13 Apparent Activation Energy of Sample A* based on ASTM-E698………….………72

Figure 4.14 Activation energy and pre-exponential factor as a function of reaction progress for Sample A……………………………………..……..…………………………………73
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Figure 4.15 Activation energy and pre-exponential factor as a function of reaction progress for Sample B……………………………………………………………………………..73

Figure 4.16 Activation energy and pre-exponential factor as a function of reaction progress for Sample C……………………………………………………………………………74

Figure 4.17 Activation energy and pre-exponential factor as a function of reaction progress for Sample A*…………………………………….……………………………………74

Figure 4.18 Comparison of experimental DSC thermograms with nth order model prediction for sample A………………………………………….………….…………………….75

Figure 4.19 Sulphide associated Mineral sites in Nigeria ………..……………………………..78

Figure 4.20 DSC thermograms of varying amount of tailings in crude oil……………………….80

Figure 4.21 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil without tailings….…….…………………81

Figure 4.22 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil with 5% tailings………………………….81

Figure 4.23 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil with 10% tailings……………………….82

Figure 4.24 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil with 20% tailings……………………….82

Figure 4.25 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil with 30% tailings……………………….83

Figure 4.26 Temperature / Pressure profile of crude oil with 40% tailings………………………83

Figure 4.27 Effect of amount of tailings on Onset temperature, Oxidation range and End set temperature during oxidation reaction of crude oils…………..……………………84

Figure 4.28 Theoretical effect of tailings on onset temperature and oxidation reaction based on Reservoir conditions…………………………………………………………………86

Figure 4.29 Effect of reservoir temperature and sulphur content on Oil Recovery……………..88

Figure 4.30 Effect of CO2 content and Sulphur content on Oil Recovery……..……..….……..89

Figure 4.31 Effect of CO2 content and reservoir temperature on Oil Recovery……..……………90

APPENDICES Figure B.1: Box plot of the summary of ARC data on 20% tailings with oil…………………..107

Figure F.1: Tuned Z-factor as a function of pressure in the differential depletion experiment…128

Figure F.2: Tuned Relative volume as a function of pressure in constant mass expansion experiment……………………………………………………………………….128

Figure F.3: Tuned Oil density as a function of pressure in differential depletion experiment …………………………………………………………………………………….129
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List of Tables Page
CHAPTER 2
Table 2.1 Reservoir drive mechanisms for oil production ……………………………………8
Table 2.2 Wide variety of reaction models f(α) ……………………………………………………………..28

CHAPTER 3

Table 3.1 List of material and utilities used in the enhanced oil recovery study………………….51

Table 3.2 List of equipment used in the enhanced oil recovery study………………………………..52

CHAPTER 4

Table 4.1 Property of the crude oil samples…………………………………………….……..61

Table 4.2 Summary of petro-physical and thermodynamic properties of the four (4) crude oil samples that showed clear/consistent peaks………………………………………..76

Table 4.3 Mineral and Chemical Constituents of the Tailings……………………………………….77

Table 4.4 Summary of the Temperature-Pressure Data Obtained from an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter test including standard deviation…………………….………………..85

APPENDICES

Table B.1: Summary of ARC’s reproducibility tests……………………………………….107

Table C.1: Paraffins, Napthenes and Aromatics content of the Nigerian reservoir fluid…….109

Table C.2: Isothermal constant mass expansion of the Nigerian crude………………………..110

Table C.3: Isothermal differential vaporization test of the crude……………………………110

Table C.4: First isothermal swelling tests of the crude……………………….…………..…111

Table D.1: Properties of characterized crude oil using SRK Equation of State……………..112

Table D.2: Interaction Parameters [kij(-)] of components of modelled crude……………….119

Table D.3: Interaction Parameters [kij A (-)]of components of the modelled crude…………112
Table D.4: Interaction Parameters of crude oil components based on The Huron and Vidal Mixing Rule g/R (K)…………………………………………………………..…..123

Table D.5: Interaction Parameters kij A (-) of the crude oil components……..………..……124

Table E.1: Properties of Characterized oil in 3 Pseudo components…………………………126

Table E.2: Interaction parameters of Pseudo-components………………………..……………127

Table E.3: Interaction parameters of Pseudo-components [kij (-)]……………..…………….127

Table E.4: Interaction Parameters of pseudo-components based on The Huron and Vidal Mixing Rule HV g/R (K)……………………………………………………………………………………127

Table E.5: Interaction parameters of Pseudo-components Mixing Rule kij A (-)……………127

Table G.1: General regression results of tuned oil properties…………………………………130

Table H.1: Recovery response of design of experimental run……………….………………132

Table H.2: ANOVA analysis of oil recovery data using response surface cubic model (Aliased)…………………………………………………………………………..133
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Table H.3: Desirability table on Optimised reservoir conditions for improved oil recovery………………………………………………………….………………..135

Table H.4: Final Equation in Terms of Actual Factors…………………………………….…135
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List of Plates
Pages CHAPTER 3 Plate 3.1 DSC system by Mettler Telodo with gas controller GC 2000……………………….54

Plate 3.2 The Rotary Micro Riffler ……………..…………………………………………….56

Plate 3.3 Tailing Samples in round mould prepared for Mineral Liberation Analysis………….57

Plate 3.4 The FEI Mineral Liberation Analyzer (MLA)……………………………….………58

APPENDICES

Plate A.1: Backscatter image of tailings used ………………………………………………..106

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A: Mineral Liberation Analysis……………………………………………….……106
Appendix B: Data from Accelerating Rate calorimeter (ARC)………………………….……107
Appendix C: Property of Nigerian Crude Oil…………………………………………………109

Appendix D: Characterisation of modelled crude using Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) Equation of State…………………………………………………………….…112

Appendix E: Characterisation of modelled crude to 3 pseudo-components…………..………126

Appendix F: Equation of State (EOS) tuning of PVT tests……………………………………128

Appendix G: Regression results of oil characterisation………………………………………130

Appendix H: Design of Experiment for oil recovery………………………………………….132
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Abbreviations, Definitions, Glossary and Symbols

Abbreviations

ARC – Accelerating rate calorimeter

DSC – Differential scanning calorimetry

PVT – Pressure- Volume- Temperature

DOE – Design of experiment

EOR – Enhanced oil recovery

LTO – Low temperature oxidation

HTO – High temperature oxidation

SRK – Soave – Redlich – Kwong E

OS – Equation of state s.g – Specific Gravity Symbols A = Pre-exponential factor c = Critical point Cp = Specific heat capacity E = Activation Energy f (α) = Reaction model f = Final i = Initial n = Reaction order R = Molar gas constant
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Sat = Saturation T = Temperature t = Time v = Darcy velocity V = Volume α = Reaction progress or conversion
β = Heating rate

CHAPTER 1 FOR THIS COMPLETE PROJECT WORK TITLED: AIR INJECTION STUDIES FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preamble
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a tertiary recovery process which is normally applied after primary and secondary recovery, to mobilize oil trapped in pores by vicious capillary forces. Thermal, chemical, solvent and gases are the most common form of various EOR process (Isco, 2007). Due to the decline of oil reserves caused by the rising oil production, and clamours for environmentally friendly practice in EOR techniques, petroleum engineers are currently driving EOR projects towards more efficient techniques. One of such efficient technique is the Air/Flue gas injection which is motivated by inexpensive source of air as well as environmentally friendly carbon-dioxide sequestration. The motivation for the use of air as an injectant in the EOR project is because of its abundance, availability and low cost. It can simply be supplied by the use of a compressor, with overall project having low initial and operating cost in comparison to other EOR methods (JOGMEC, 2011).
Air for increasing oil recovery from reservoirs dates back to the 1940’s and early 1950’s (Hvizdos et al., 1983) and by the 1960s and 1970, about forty (40) in-situ full field or pilot projects had been undertaken throughout the world with North America topping such projects (Pwaga et al., 2010). This technique, apart from laboratory studies has been implemented in fields such as West Hackberry in Louisiana, Horse Creek North and South Dakota, Zhongyuan and Liaoche oil fields in China, H field in Indonesia, South Bridge in California and other countries such as Romania, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, India, Argentina, Venezuela have maintained laboratory and field studies too (Sakthikumar et al., 1996; Ren et al., 1999; Mendoza et al., 2011; Niu et al., 2011; Iwata et al., 2001; Xia et al., 2004; Zhu et al., 2001). Air has also been used in heavy oil recovery and enhancement of this technique can lead to significant light oil production (Surguchev et al., 1998).
An alternative to air injection is the flue gas (which contains nitrogen and carbon-dioxide) produced from the combustion of oxygen contained in the air to sweep oil. This EOR technique, when applied to light oil is known as light oil air injection while in heavy oil reservoir, it is called in-situ combustion. (Kuhlman, 2004; Teramoto et al., 2006; Turta et al., 2007; Li et al., 2009).
Some studies carried out to describe criteria as well as performance of air injection projects gave positive results even though experimental condition could not mimic the adiabacity of the reservoir (Sakthikumar et al., 1996). Temperature regimes, heat energy content, pressure and temperature dependence during oil combustion were also studied using simple Arhennius type model which assumes constant kinetic parameters throughout the reaction (Hvizdos et al., 1983; Elgibaly, 1998; Niu et al., 2011; Li, et al., 2009). There have been few researches which reports on the complexities of combustion reaction of crude oils where kinetic parameters fluctuate or the alteration of the oxidations zones.

1.2 Problem Statements
The following are the problems, research gaps in literature and previous studies on enhanced oil recovery with reference to light oil air injection projects.
1. Despite the several thermal and kinetic studies carried out on Enhanced oil recovery, there has been no research that addresses how the kinetic parameters fluctuate during the combustion process for the benefit of oil recovery.
2. Arrhenius type of equation and simple nth order model have been used to study oxidation of oil and these do not adequately capture the complexity of the reaction (such as the trend of activation energy as reaction progresses), therefore, the need to study other models and techniques.
3. Very few and scanty literatures exist that captures the various oxidation reaction zones of crude oil.
4. Interaction parameters of temperature, pressure, extent of air oxidation and sulphur content on crude oil recovery have received low discussions in literatures, hence the need to focus attention on them for the benefit of enhanced oil recovery especially in countries like Nigeria where EOR is yet to be fully practiced.

1.3 Justifications of Research
This sections highlights the benefits of this research.
1. This study will provide insight into improved oil recovery from low producing/ abandoned wells.
2. The iso-conversional approach will help capture the complexity of crude oil oxidation reaction.
3. The findings will benefit upstream companies operating in Nigeria currently at the secondary production stage and at verge of abandoning the wells.
4. This will also help the federal Government of Nigeria during negotiations of oil well sales.
5. It will open up researches and studies on catalytic potential of Nigeria’s mine tailings.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Research
The aim of this research work was to investigate the kinetics, combustion of air and combustion air products for enhanced oil recovery.
This aim was achieved by the following objectives:
1. Using differential iso-conversional method to describe oxidation of crude oils in-situ reservoir.
2. Studying oxidation behaviours of crude oil in an adiabatic environment to verify non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results.
3. Using tailing as catalyst to alter oxidation characteristics of crude oils.
4. Studying the combined effect of parameters of reservoir conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas content on oil recovery.

1.5 Scope of Research
The scope of this research are focussed on:
1. Combustion behaviours and kinetics of the oxidation reaction of low pressure reservoir of light crude oils.
2. The use of mine tailings to improve the reactions for the benefit of improved oil recovery.
3. Modelling of air injection process with respect to the progress of oxidation kinetics with temperature.
4. The use of crude oil databank and PVT tests to analyse the enhanced oil recovery process for Nigerian crude oils.

 

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