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According to Kheni et al  (2008) the construction industry plays a significant roles in the economy of developing countries. In the same vein, Ibironke  (2003) and SHittu & Shehu  (2010) reported that the construction industry is very important in the economic development of any nation, especially in an expanding economy like Nigeria. Okeola (2009)added that a least 50% of the investment in various development plans is primarily in construction and the industry is the next employer of labour after agriculture in underdeveloped countries. The construction industry is still seen as one of the most dangerous industries due to the number of accidents recorded yearly (Jaselskis & Suazo, 1994). Lingard & Rowlinson  (1994) and Spillane et al..(2011) reported that the construction industry in most developing and developed countries have been adjudged to be performing very badly in the area of safety by international standards. Omran et al.  (2010) added that the construction industry is characterized as one with a poor safety culture globally. A very serious safety problem facing Nigeria is the problem of defect in building as a result of poor quality materials and workmanship which leads to fatal site accidents due to building collapse. Poor quality in construction project is a common phenomenon in the world. Many disputes happened among clients, house owners and parties involved in construction (especially contractors) on construction defects cases. According to baiden & Tuuli  (2004), “defects and variations in construction products from standards is persistently a problem of concern in the construction industry in Ghana”. Defects in construction project could also be seen as incompliance or lack of conformity with contract agreement which include: working drawing, specification, quality of workmanship, and any-other condition not expressly stated such as durability, aesthetic, performance or design”. The problem of defective construction witnessed in the construction sector was tackled by the introduced of “Quality Assurance (QA) techniques” which was initiated by other industries, however, the technique is still being improved on to be suitable in the construction companies.
Kazaz & Birgonul (2005) stated that the satisfaction of quality level in the contraction projects has not been achieved and is a serious problem in Turkey. Abdul Razak et al.,  (2000) stated that quality of the certain construction projects in Malaysia does not always meet satisfaction. Nevertheless, Wai Kion & Sui Phen (2005 found out that the majority of human errors arise as a result of “forgetfulness and carelessness,” and about 30% were due to inadequate knowledge while the least error arises from the willingness of the appraisal of building defects due to poor workmanship, in faculty of environmental studies, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Contractor Wai-Kiong & Sui Pheng(2005) further claimed that the absence of incentive is the key factor affecting workmanship quality and also that the incidence of risk result to the occurrence of defects. In general, defects are considered to arise as a result of “lack of knowledge, lack of information or lack of motivation” while “carelessness” was claimed to be the most significant cause. Defects in building can therefore arise from either or a combination of the occurrence of following situation; error in design by the Architect, flaws from the manufacturer, defects in materials, wrong use or inappropriate installation of equipments, and inconformity to specification by the contractor, among others. General forms of defects in construction includes either or a combination of the following; defects in structure giving rise to cracks or collapse; defects or faults in electrical and plumbing installations; inadequacy of drains for proper disposal; insufficient provision for ventilation; poor cooling and/or heating system; poor sound insulation system, and insufficient fire prevention or protection mechanism. In addition, defects in building may also be as a result of the following; fungus, termite, or vermin infection, fungus, wood rot, mould, and dry rot. Damages as a result of earth settlement or land movement may also result to defect to building. Ascertainment of defects in building can only be done by an expert, such as architect or engineer, who by training and experience will be able to confirm the causes of the problem, either resulting from poor design, low quality of material or poor workmanship. According to Abdul Rahman et al.  (1996), workmanship was classified as one of the most frequent non-conformance on construction site and therefore through literatures, eight variables that related to the causes of poor quality of workmanship in construction projects had been found out. These are:
The rate of construction project accomplishment is weak because of the rapid increasing rate of major defects in building as a result of the following points:
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to examine the problem of poor workmanship quality as a cause of building defect with a view of proffering solutions to minimize these problems. The following objectives were set out in order to achieve the aim:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to study the problem identified, the following questions have been stated for the study:
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This research is restricted to faculty of environmental studies only. This building was chosen due to the fact that it has different aspect of building defects. However, a general review of some specific places where building defects occurred will be noted.
1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY
This project is of great relevance to Builders, Architects, and Clients and as well as the site operatives who carry-out the construction of the building on site. Moreover, this project will throw more light on the influence of poor design, specification and detailing on the parts of Architects and Engineers as one major cause of defect in buildings. It will also enlighten building users of the health implication of defects and help student studying building and related fields on the causes of defects in building and ways to reduce them.
1.7 STUDY AREA
The study area of this research work is faculty of environmental studies, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Edo state.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERM:
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