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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

UCHENTE GOGO HARRISON

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: AN ASSESSMENT OF COLIFORMS IN THE AMERICAN UNIVERITY OF NIGERIA WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [111 KB]
  • Length: [31] Pages

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………….1
WATER DISTRIBUTION …………………………………………………………………………1
Drinking and domestic use ………………………………………………………………………1
Importance of good water supply ……………………………………………………………..2
Description of the purification methods …………………………………………………….3
Water safety and quality …………………………………………………………………………5
Faults in the system ……………………………………………………………………………….6
WATER-BORNE RELATED DISEASES ……………………………………………………7
Classification ………………………………………………………………………………………..7
Indicator organisms………………………………………………………………………………..8
Interview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Basic Historical Context: ……………………………………………………………………… 12
Interview Summary: ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS …………………………………………………………. 15
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Hypothesis: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………………………………………………. 16
Materials: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Reagents:………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Methods: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Procedure: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Presumptive Test: ……………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Completed Test: ………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Precautions: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
Table 2.1 showing the results of the Presumptive Test carried on a section of
AUN Distribution System. …………………………………………………………………….. 22
DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Table 2.2 showing the Presumptive Test of the positive tubes during the outage
period ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Table 2.3 showing the Presumptive Test after subtracting the number of hours
lost and putting in an incubator. …………………………………………………………….. 24
Results Compared with Other Water Systems ……………………………………………… 24

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
WATER DISTRIBUTION
Generally, water has numerous purposes: drinking; bathing; washing clothes
and dishes; cooking; flushing toilet, irrigation, just to name a few. Its significance
cannot be over stressed. This is on the grounds that every day each individual uses
water for one thing or the other.
As water flows throughout the distribution system, microorganisms can
contaminate the flow of water through the pipes, air valves, pump boosters, network
of piping system and sometimes through the plumbing system.
Inability to attain a water quality as high as feasible can open individuals to
the risk of getting diseases that can easily be avoided through percussive methods.
Drinking and domestic use
Household or domestic water is mainly the water used for drinking, washing
and cleaning purposes. Water quality hence is dependent on its micro-constituents
and whether or not it has adverse effects on consumption. Therefore, water
containing harmful or toxic microorganisms and elements is regarded as unfit for
household consumption. Basic examples of toxins found in household water
incorporate microorganisms, for example, protozoa viruses, and bacteria; inorganic
contaminants, for example, salts, metals, radioactive contaminants and small
amounts of organic contaminants.
However, industrial water includes water sources used mainly for industrial
purposes. The quality of water in this scenario is therefore slightly different than the
water meant for consumption purposes. For instance, hard water, which constitutes
2
high concentrations of minerals, hampers the effectiveness of soaps or detergents
whereas drinking water should most preferably be hard water because of the
presence of ions such as calcium and magnesium.
On the other hand, environmental water describes water available to the
biosphere and which in some way affects the balance of the ecosystem. Lethal
constituents and high masses of specific microorganisms pose risks for non-drinking
purposes, for example, swimming and irrigation which inhabits the use of domestic
water. The measured quality of water bodies is called Ambient Water Quality.
Importance of good water supply
The quality of water is noted as important not only because it affects health,
but also because it has the tendency to improve it as well. The body is made up of
70% water and the amounts of magnesium and calcium present in any body of
consumable water has the ability to improve bone mass and density.
The elements present in water, depending on their quantities, have the ability
to hamper the effectiveness of industrial machines by causing rust, brittleness,
clogging, bursting, etc. Hence, to ensure the a good standard water quality, there
needs to be an understanding of what pollutants and contaminants upset the balance
of water constituents is necessary to ensure that balance is not tempered with.
Trace levels of ammonia, barium, lead, copper, nitrites, radium, selenium,
etc. have negative effects on humans if present in large amounts and can only be
curtailed via treatment. There is the point-of-use treatment which involves the
treatment of water at the point of consumption using methods such as reverse
osmosis, ultraviolet technologies and distillation. On the other hand, point-of-entry
3
involves the treatment of water needed for household chores using methods such as
ion replacement and filtration. On the line of water distribution or supply, filtration
comes as it is a key process in ensuring good water quality.
Description of the purification methods
Physical Form of Water Purification: It is thus named because it is concerned with
filtration techniques. Filtration is used while purifying water because it effectively
rids the said portion of water of particles, silts or debris. Sometimes, for special
purposes, specific filters capable of filtering out bacterial form can be engaged. A
few examples of physical purification include:
1. Screen: Usually used to remove large contaminants like leaves and twigs.
2. Sand Filtration: It is a vigorous process used to remove suspended solids
from water. It consists mainly of a filter medium containing multiple sand
layers of different sizes and densities. These solids are precipitated as residue
when water is made to flow through the filter. Because smaller solids have
the ability to pass through sand filters, they are subjected to a secondary
filtration.
3. Cross Flow Filtration: This is a filtration concerned with using a permeable
membrane to remove both salts and dissolved organic matter that only
permeates the contaminants. The filtrate is removed as the process goes on.
The following are types of cross flow filtration: micro-filtration, ultrafiltration
and reversed osmosis.
4. Cartridge Filtration: It generally operates effectively and economically on
applications having excessively high contamination levels. They consist of
fibers and are normally used as final processes as polishing filters.
4
Chemical Form of Water Purification
1. Chemical Addition: This process mainly consists of agents such as chelating,
oxidizing and reducing agents. They are necessary to add to the water to
prevent the negative effects of hardness, caused by the deposition of elements
2. Clarification: It consists of a series of processes that involves the addition of
coagulants to remove large. Suspended solids. Coagulants help to reduce the
charges of ions causing the particles to gather and form larger particles called
Flocs. These particles are removed as water flows. Further treatment may be
needed because the water may still contain some suspended solids.
3. Deionization and Softening: This is commonly processed through a system
called Ion Exchange. It consists of a tank of synthetic resin which is treated to
selectively absorb certain cations or anions and replace them with desirable
counter-ions until all the available spaces are filled up with ions.
4. Disinfection: Disinfection is one of the most important and widely known
steps in the purification of water for household use. Often referred to as
biocides, they serve the purpose of killing undesired microorganisms in the
water; ozone, chlorine and controlled UV-radiation disinfections are good
examples.
5. Distillation: Distillation is the collection of water vapor, after boiling.
Because most contaminants do not vaporize, with a properly designed
system, the remaining organic and inorganic contaminants and biological
impurities can be obtained.
6. Electro dialysis: Electro dialysis is a complex technique which employs the
use of electrical currents and special membranes – membranes which are
semi permeable

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