The purpose of embarking on this study is to provide a detailed assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of Broadcast media Organisation in Nigeria. The objectives were to thoroughly examine the relevance of the new ICTs, to evaluate the value, importance and quality of ICTs in Nigeria Broadcast Media Organisations. A total of 100 respondents were selected from the population; 50 from Enugu State Broadcasting Service and another 50 from those members of the public who have access to the media house. The stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. The data generated were analyzed using simple descriptive and statistical tools such as simple Percentages, tabular Presentations and frequency distributions. Data gathered from the study were analyzed and interpreted using simple Percentage and tables. Also summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations were made on the study for further studies this include regular disbursement of monthly/quarterly subventions from the government to the media and the upgrading of operational equipments, engineering and communication gadgets, these are meant for policy formulation on the relationship between mass media and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), its assessment.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Human existence would have been meaningless without Information and Communication. Ideas, values, policies and every aspect of socio-cultural, political and economic obligation within the human environments would have been difficult to achieve without adequate dose of information and communication. As a result, information acts as grease for lubricating the entire society. However, the invention of modern means communication with the help of civilization made possible the advancement of science and technology the world has become a global village.
Ekwelie and Okonkwo (1983:16-62) recorded that “at one time, man depended on iron and wooden gong, the town crier for the exchange, transmission and dissemination of information and vital news,” but after the second (II) world war, a great leap was made from this tasking mode of information dissemination to a more advanced, mechanized method of transmitting message or news.
Broadcasting came to Nigeria in stages, one of which was the introduction of wired broadcasting more popularly known as radio distribution or re-diffusion in 1939 by the colonial government of British Broadcast Co-operation (BBC) to redistribute its programme by means of wires connected to loudspeakers installed in various homes of subscribers. It was developed in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1920’s and exported to their colonies. However, its introduction to Nigeria was on the initiative of the engineers of the post of telegraph department in Lagos who had been involved in monitoring the transmission of the BBC on short wave. Since then, the Nigerian mass media industry has witnessed a phenomenal growth since the establishment of Nigeria Broadcasting Service in 1957 and the country’s first television station, set up by the then government of the former western region in 1959. The establishment of western Nigerian Broadcasting Service combined Radio and African first Television service triggered a race by the other two regions to setup theirs. The information and Communication as a loose term in describing ways in which people, machines and communication system can work together to make jobs quicker, more efficient and more accurate.
Siegfried Mandel (1962:22) stated that the world crossed into “information superhighway”, and it is this information superhighway that has tremendously changed the role of communication and information dissemination in the society. Today, with the help of great innovation and scientific inventions, mass communication has been revolutionized with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Now we talk about satellite transmission and communication, computer communication, digital broadcasting system, computer, internet information and Communication, digital cellular phones (like GSM), fibre optics, microwave technologies, radio visual systems, robots enterprise software among others.
Information and Communication Technologies has made it possible for dissemination of information evenly and to a wide range of audience especially with the advent of GSM in Nigeria, both the literate, illiterate, urban and rural dwellers alike are kept abreast of vital issues, thereby closing up communication gap or information. Therefore, in realization of this views, it interests the researchers to assess the application of Information and Communication Technologies in the Enugu State Broadcasting Service () station.
When Marshal McLuhan talked about the global village many years ago, people at that time thought he was a joker. The new communication technologies have made people become increasingly involved in one another’s life. As Baran, (1999:51) observes, technologies not itself a medium but a social force bringing changes to the media world. Therefore, communication is any artifacts manipulated by man to aid him communicate interpersonally or massively.
The impact of the information technology on media industry has been improved. Information can reach people around the world within seconds, for instance, digital technology has placed us at a point of a new significant way of development in the history of human communication often called “the Information society” and has transformed the way many men and women work in the media industry (Ilo 2002:22) information can be sent all around the world within seconds with the new technologies, and news can reach people when it happens.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
The new information and communication technologies have been envisaged by some by some people as the threshold of globalizing the world. Information Technology acts as a great facilitator in globalizing, uniting the disintegrated world and enabling people to gain access to knowledge and services. There is no doubt that the world is becoming homogenous and differences between people are distinguishing. So, there is need for the Nigeria media to live up to the challenges.
There are many opinions that station cannot compete well with the rest of its counterparts in Nigeria because of so many teething problems such as lack of facilities, obsolete equipment, inadequate training, poor finance and government interference. As a result, this research will investigate these assertions to ascertain the truth of the matter. Moreover, it will go further to find out whether the application of information and communication technologies has impacted or enhanced the Broadcast media organization in Nigeria by adding value, importance or quality to it.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The overall objective of this study was to assess the use of ICTs in the performance of Nigerian broadcast media. However, the specific objectives include:
- To ascertain the level of application of ICTs in Enugu State Broadcasting Service
- To identify the factors responsible for that level of performance Enugu State Broadcasting Service with the use of ICT
- To assess the implication of the present level of ICTs performance in Enugu State Broadcasting Service
- To recommend ways of improving the adoption and enhanced performance of
Enugu State Broadcasting Service with the use of ICT.
1.4. Research Questions
In the course of the study, attempts were made to provide answers to the following questions which served as a guide in the entire process.
- What is the assessment level of ICTs in the performance of Enugu State Broadcasting Service?
- Why is Enugu State Broadcasting Service still operating at that level of ICTs for performance?
- What implication does the present level of ICTs performance have on Enugu State Broadcasting Service?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The value, importance or quality of ICTs in media development cannot be over emphasized; It is one thing for a medium to adopt the use of ICTs for reliability and efficiency while another which neglects it cannot meet the pace of globalization trend, but it will be an immerse benefit to media outfits who adopt it and make use to it in their operations.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The general concern of this study is to assess the application of ICTs in the entire Nigerian mass media. However, as a result of insufficient time, money and materials and in order to remain realistic and avoid ambiguity, the researcher decided to limit the scope to the Enugu State Broadcasting Service.
It is however believed that the findings and recommendations of the work would be beneficial to both those within and outside the scope of the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In a study of this nature, the researcher may run the risk of having the operational terms in the work interpreted variously and in different perspectives by the readers. Such non-uniformity in conceptualization affects the readers‟ validity and reliability of the study. It is in view of this probability that this section is devoted to conceptual clarifications. Hence, in the conceptual and operational views, we look at the meaning of the following words:
Appraisal: In the context of this work, “appraisal” means an assessment or evaluation to determine the extent of adoption and application of ICTs in Nigerian mass media, with a special focus on ESBS .
ICTs: “ICTs” stands for Information and Communication Technologies. ICTs according to Tiamiyu (2003:35) cited in Salawu (2007:18), “are those electronic gadgets, equipment or technologies for creating, acquiring, storing, processing, communicating and using information”. This study is concerned with those used in the media – print and electronic.
Application: The word “application” literally means the practical use of something, especially a discovery or innovation, theory, etc, or an act of putting something on to something else. In this work, it simply means the practical use of ICTs in the Nigerian mass media such as ESBS .
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