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ABSTRACT

In Nigeria today it been observed that when changing from one GSM network operators to the
other, customers has to give up their old numbers and adopt a new one. As a result, they face
switching costs associated with informing people about changing their number, printing new
business cards, missing valuable calls from people that do not have the new number, etc. In this
research the Key Performance Indicatiors (KPI) of network providers and the causes of poor
quality service quality by GSM network operators in Nigeria were examined. The review
findings leads to a novel method of subscriber authentication in mobile cellular networks
and its implementation framework in future mobile phones and devices. Mobile Number
portability (MNP) Java VSIM Suite was suggested to all mobile network operators and the
migration of subscriber to adopt. Mobile Number Portability is a circuit-switch
telecommunications network feature that enables end users to retain their telephone numbers
when changing service providers, service types, and/or locations. A Fuzzy logic block set of
MATLAB/Simulink and Java programming language with Netbeans 7.0 and XAMP Control
panel were used in realizing Mobile Number portability (MNP) of different mobile operators. A
set of benchmarks which are considered as crucial for deployment while taking cognizance of
user’s requirements of mobile devices shows that in the KPI investigations for MTN, GLO,
ETISALAT and AIRTEL Mobile operators are still yet to deliver a uniform and efficient QoS.
Furthermore, the approach demonstrates the replaceability of the existing SIM card GSM
architecture with an adequate trusted software module proposed to develop an improved model
for MNP scheme for GSM subscribers in Nigeria using KPIs.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Approval page ……………………………………………………………………………..i
Certification ………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Declaration ………………………………………………………………………………… iii
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………… iv
Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………………. v
Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………….. vii
List of figures …………………………………………………………………………… x
List table ……………………………………………………………………………….. xvi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1. Background of Study……………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2. Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.3. Aims and Objective of the Research………………………………………………… 3
1.4 Justification of the Work………………………………………………………….. 3
1.5 Scope of the Work……………………………………………………………….. 4
1.6 Dissertation report organization……………………………………………………. 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………… 6
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2.1. Introduction to GSM Telephony ……………………….………………………… 6
2.1.1 GSM Carrier Frequency……………………………………………………………. 6
2.2 GSM Network Technologies and Their Evolutions………………………………….. 7
2.2.1 Fourth Generation- 4G Evolution ………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.2.1.1 IMT-2000 Compliant 4G Standards………………………………………….. 8
2.2.1.2 Key Features in 4G Candidate System…………………………………………… 10
2.2.2. Fifth Generation- 5G Evolution and Next Generation Evolutions………………… 11
2.3. Adoption Index/Market Readiness……………………………………………………. 11
2.4. An Overview of GSM Cellular Architecture…………………………………………. 12
2.4.1 The Radio-Subsystem (RSS)………………………………………………………… 11
2.4.2. Network- and Switching Subsystem (NSSS)………………………………………. 14
2.4.3. Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMSS)………………………………….. 15
2.5. Mobility Management……………………………………………………………….. 16
2.6. QoS in GSM Networks ……………………………………………………………… 17
2.6.1. Quality of Service and Key Performance Indices (KPI) for GSM Networks ……. 18
2.6.1.1 Qos Evaluation Criteria …………………………………………………………… 25
2.7. Challenges Facing QoS Service Provisioning In Nigeria…………………………….. 26
2.8. SMART Cards ………………………………………………………………………. 28
2.8.1 Features of Smart Card Hardware………………………………………………….. 30
2.9. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) for Mobile Equipment………………………….. 30
2.9.1. What is a SIM Card? ………………………………………………………………. 30
2.9.2. GSM SIM Network parameters …………………………………………………… 31
2.9.2.1 Functionality of the SIM Card……………………………………………………….33
2.9.2.2 SIM Security……………………………………………………………………….. 35
2.9.3. Authentication of a Cellular Phone with the GSM Network ……………………… 36
2.9.3.1 SIM Interest Groups……………………………………………………………….. 37
2.10 Trusted Computing Group…………………………………………………………… 38
2.11. Benchmarks and Evaluation Criteria……………………………………………….. 38
2.12. Mobile Number Portability …………………………………………………………. 39
2.12.1. The review of academic literature on MNP……………………………………… 40
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2.12.2. Research on the effects of MNP in various countries and regions……………… 40
2.12.3. Conceptual framework on MNP………………………………………………… 45
2.12.4. Mobile Number Portability – How to PORT From Network A to Network B…… 46
2.12.5 Limitations of MNP ……………………………………………………………… 48
2.13. Fuzzy Logic and ANFIS…………………………………………………………… 49
2.14. Summary of Review works………………………………………………………….. 53
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS…………………………………………. 54
3.1. Methodology………………………………………………………………………… 54
3.1.1 Quality Voice Machine (QVM)…………..………………………………………… 54
3.1.2. ASCOM Mobile Test Strategy and AMTS QoS Supervision Technique………………. 54
3.1.3. Quality of the received signal (rxqual)…………………………………………………………….. 56
3.1.4a. Test Bed Description and Field Measurements…………………………….. 58
3.1.4b. Conceptual Test bed Topology …………………………………………………….59
3.1.5. Measurement Environment……………………………………………………. 60
3.1.6. Macromobility Data Collection…………………………………… ………………64
3.1.6.1 Data Collection Method …………………………………………………………. 64
3.1.6.2 Analysis Process Framework ……………………………………………………. 64
3.1.6.3 Post Processing Data Analysis ………………………………………………….. 65
3.1.6.4 Data Analysis and Result ………………………………………………………… 65
CHAPTER 4……………………………………………………………………………… 74
4.0 MNP MODELING USING FUZZY NETWORK…………………………………….. 74
4.1. Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System for Network Integration………………………. 74
4.2. System Implementation …………………………………………………………… 87
4.2.1. Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology…………………………….. 87
CHAPTER 5
5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………………………………… 98
5.1 Results ………………………………………………………………………… 98
5.2 Discussion …………………………………………………………………….. 122
CHAPTER 6
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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………….. 123
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………… 126
Appendix I Paper Publications ……………………………………………………….. 134
Appendix II Fuzzy Logic M-File……………………………………………………… 135
Appendix III Java Codings for MNSIMsuite…………………………………………. 136
Appendix IV MATLAB Environment Snapshots……………………………………… 153
Appendix V List of Abbreviations …………………………………………………….. 154

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Of Study
The conventional GSM networks in Nigeria suffers from poor quality of service and congestion
effects . Objective measurement in the context of quality of service in mobile cellular networks
has presented a major challenge for both the stakeholders and end-users. This is traced to the
peculiarities associated with the QoS metrics. However, the distinguishing characteristics for
networks QoS evaluation must tend towards two major ends: a credible and reliable assessment
of the likelihood that users will find a particular service satisfactory; and the determination on
how system performance could be changed when that assessment shows that users are not likely
to be satisfied. In recent past, approaches of proposed network quality of service metrics, took
little cognizance the interests of the users of telecommunications services and the perspective of
the experts who design, build, and operate the systems that deliver those services [2].
Wireless mobile Internet is migrating towards an integrated system of Internet and
telecommunication technologies in order to fulfill the future requirements of GSM networks i.e
ubiquitous communication with best service availability. This demands a rapid progress in GSM
networks and Internet technologies QoS analysis. Some suggests that Quality of Service should
be based on reliability, availability, security, assurance, simplicity and flexibility of the network
as criteria for judgment. Others based their study on user’s satisfaction using coverage, call
quality, promotions and offering of incentives and rewards, prices of services, billing etc. –J.D
Power and Associates Survey in United Kingdom (2008).
Consequently, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Association in her 2007
convention in Sutherland identified a list of indicators for mobile phone quality of service
assessment. These indicators include Network Accessibility, Service Accessibility, Service
Integrity, and Service Retainability.
Accordingly, the incessant complaint by GSM network users in Nigeria concerning the services
by their providers is a strong indication that Quality of service rendered by the network operators
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is below average. This challenge has been criticized by both industry and consumer groups
among other stakeholders in the sector.
In finding the lasting solution to the problem, the NCC as a body responsible for the regulation
of GSM in Nigeria, in the last quarters of the year 2011 issue out the threshold levels on the Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs) for ascertaining QoS of all the GSM networks in the country.
Hence, stipulates some sanctions to any operator who fails to meet it. The KPIs considered in
this work includes: Call Completion Rate (CCR), Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR), Call Drop
Rate (CDR), Call Handover Success Rate (CHSR) and Standalone Dedicated Control Channel
(SDCCH). This research will therefore focus on the four standards metrics used in assessing the
performance of mobile networks viz: Accessibility (i.e. getting to the network), Retainability (i.e.
staying on the network), Connection Quality or Service Integrity (i.e. service experience while
using the network), and finally the Network Coverage. (i.e the geographical region covered by
one mast)
Therefore, evaluation of the mobile cellular networks proposed in this research will center on
these standard metrics for objective measurement to show the current KPI status in Nigeria as a
case study and the implementation of Mobile Number portability (MNP) to all mobile network
operators.
1.2. Problem Statement
One common feature of GSM networks in Nigeria is poor network services as expressed by over
170 million end users considering their real-time service subscriptions to the various network
operators. Network Congestion is not left out of the observed challenges. Besides, the mobile
node platform lacks an intrinsic decision algorithm for future services integrations as well as
poor sensitivity or high Bit Error Rates. These challenges are being experienced via inability to
set up calls, call drops, occasional service outages, cross-talks and network congestions among
others. Again, the designers of GSM netwoks have not adequately put into consideration
design goals for the GSM porting flexibility. Consequently, network poor quality of service
results as the number of customer’s increases and integration of new web application becomes
difficult since they are not originally provisioned for in the design. This work on the
reengineering of GSM network for an improved MNP scheme for GSM subscribers seeks to
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solve this problem. Hence this research, will seeks to ascertain the compliance index of
selected GSM network operators, the factors responsible for network failure and the
feasibility of GSM network integration to set a new enhancement panacea to the unending
Quality of service problem in Nigeria. A new architecture that will address KPI issues while
demonstrating a new integration framework will gain a wide acceptance among the stakeholders,
researchers, and users.
1.3. Aims and objectives of the Work
This research is aimed at developing an improved model using MNP scheme for GSM
subscribers vis-a-vis their KPIs using Fuzzy logic blockset having identified the performance of
Mobile Cellular Networks in Nigeria. Other Specific objectives include:
1. To carry out empirical analysis on the GSM networks KPIs as well as analysing the data
collected using drive test approach.
2. To demonstrate migration algorithm using the reference architectural JAVA based VSim
MNP suite for GSM network integration.
3. To develop a prototype GSM module for MNP which demostrates a good BER
perfomance depicting an excellent QoS results
4. To use fuzzy logic to detect the network with the best KPIs
1.4 Justification of the Work
The dynamism of today’s real time services demands a robust GSM network that is efficient,
scalable, cost-effective, service-oriented, and responsive to business needs. This research seeks
to achieve a stable QoS considering the proposed fuzzy integration platform for GSM networks.
GSM future technologies and its implementation schemes that meet the above criteria will be
widely celebrated. Besides, running a virtual SIM with MNP suite as trusted and protected
software on a mobile device will allow for significant expansion of services by introducing new
usage scenarios and business models, cost reduction and more flexibility, while guarantying a
high level of security in its architecture. This work will consequently serve as an eye opener to
all the critical stakeholders and researchers in GSM design implementations and deployments
while complying with stipulated or regulatory body criteria.
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1.5 Scope of the Work
This work will cover initial investigations on GSM KPI compliance index using generic SIMs
with the Qvoice Tool. In the study, various schemes viz: Customer Complaints [9], Network
Statistics [10] and Drive Tests will be reviewed while using fuzzy datasets to monitor evaluate
and analyze the QoS in order to arrive at an appropriate decision and status in this work. The
Drive test will be carried out using QVOICE as a measurement tool which is a Quality of service
measurement equipment installed in a special purpose-built vehicle to enable set up test with
minimal vibration and shock while the vehicle is on motion. This real-time measurement
equipment by Ascom operates both on GSM 2.5G and 3G networks and purposely manufactured
for data acquisition over a live network [11]. It is robust, portable transceiver equipment with
high speed scanner that can measure up to 8 channels simultaneously and accommodate 4
mobile. It has two different components: (a) QVM- data collection part and (b) QVP – data
analysis part. The test site will be Abuja and the KPI metrics includes viz::
(a) Call Completion Rate (CCR);Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR);Call Drop Rate (CDR);
(b) Call Handover Success Rate (CHSR);’Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH).
Moreover, in this work, the analysis & performance of mobile networks in Nigeria based on
above mentioned KPIs using Drive Test in collecting the data is presented. These KPIs
performances will be merged together to form an overall QoS report of the network. We will
provide the analysis of the result obtained during the field measurement using these KPIs as
basic unit for QoS monitoring. The QVOICE equipment will be used as a measurement tool to
test the networks and collect data samples. In addition, we will illustrate the effect the coverage
and mobility management on the overall service performance. From above, a formulation for
MNP based on Mobile Trusted Computing reference Architecture is presented using a
MATLAB fuzzy integration model for the GSM networks, a reengineered MSimNPS suite with
a security architecture and realtime simulation testbed that scales efficiently in terms of
performance, cost-economy, convergence, stability and ease of integration for future realtime
services for end users.
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1.6 Dissertation report organization
This dissertation is divided into six chapters:
Chapter one presents introduction of GSM networks and KPIs
Chapter two reviewed the mobile cellular evolutions, their architectural generations, the GSM
KPI as QoS metrics, TCG reference architecture, SMART/SIM cards, Mobile Number
Portability and matlab fuzzy logic with ANFIS.
Chapter three presents the methodology, system analysis, real-time system methodology, QoS
evaluation criteria, key performance indicators, ASCOM mobile test strategy, test bed
description and field measurements, data collection method, analysis process framework
Chapter four presents the MNP modeling using fuzzy network and system implementation
Chapter five presents the results and discussion of the research.
While Chapter six presents the conclusion and recommendations.
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