This study was carried out on the  investigation on the usage of computer based test on the performance of secondary schools students in Nigeria . Specifically, the study examined  effect of  CBT on the performance of secondary schools students, investigate the problems associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria, discover if any measure is stop or put an end to the problems OF CBT in Nigeria, proffer solutions to the problem of CBT in Nigeria.

The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 95 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that CBT has helped in reducing cheating in examination,It has helped student to study better, hence it has increased academic performance of studentIt has helped student to gain interest in information communications technology,Lack of infrastructural facilities,Incompetence on the part of examinee, Insufficient accommodation, equipment and power outage. The study recommend Government should make available sufficient accommodation and computer  equipment in other for students to have smooth examination, Government should provide enough computers for the teeming population preparing for the CBT examination, It is also recommended that student should learn how to use a computer in other for them to achieve success in their examination.




Teaching and learning are constantly being migrated to several ubiquitous platform. The World Wide Web (WWW) has therefore become an indispensable tool in the administration of pedagogy. This development has led to accelerated availability of educational resources and the promotion of collaboration across different research and educational institute. A significant component of this innovative trend is the adoption of web-based technology driven assessment of students. It is becoming commonplace to see institutions across the educational strata adopt Computer-Based Test (CBT) and assessment to admit or screen students for entrance into Nigeria Institutions (Sadiq and Onianwa, 2011). However, this mode of conducting examination is a new phenomenon in Nigeria. The use of CBT for entrance examination in education, military training, and certification examination by professional groups and promotional examination in various stages and categories of life cannot be overemphasized. Erle, at el 2006) cited by Olumorin et al. Utter-based test is the use of computers to administer tests. Other terminologies used to describe Computer- Based Test (CBT) include Computer Assisted Testing (CAT), Computerized Assessment, Computer Aided Assessment (CAA), Computer Based Assessment (CBA), Online Assessment, Web-Based Assessment, Technology Enhanced Assessment, Automation Assessment, and E-Assessment or Test or Examination (Mubashrah et al., 2012; Obioma et al., 2013; Alabi et al., 2012). Computer Based Test means the candidate sits in front of a computer and the questions are presented on the computer monitor and the candidate submits the answers through the use of keyboard or mouse (Ogunlade et al., n.d). Automation of educational assessments, be it school-based assessment or other public examinations, can be described as the application of technology for the assessment of learning outcomes; using machines to perform those operations which hitherto was performed wholly or partly by teachers or employees (Obioma, et al., 2013). Alabi et al. (2012) described computer based testing as a method of administering tests in which the responses are electronically recorded, assessed, or both.

Assessment is central to the practice of education. For students, good performance on ‘high-stakes’ assessment gives access to further educational opportunities and employment. For teachers and schools, it provides evidence of success as individuals and institutions. Assessment systems provide the ways to measure individual and institutional success, and so can have a profound driving influence on systems they were designed to serve. Presently, the predominant mode of student’s assessment in Nigeria is the traditional method. In this method, students are assessed using paper and pen on cognitive abilities. This method of assessment has imposed serious limitations to the effectiveness of the method. The traditional method is characterized by various form of examination malpractices such as bringing in unauthorized materials, writing on currency notes and identity cards, spying of other candidates in examination hall, substitution of answer sheets and change of examination scores or grades. Others include, impersonation, leakage of questions to students before the examination, conniving with supervisors and school authorities to cheat, body writing or tattoo in which students especially females write on hidden parts of their bodies.

Computer-Based Test (CBT), also known as Computer-Based Assessment, e-Examination/ Assessment, Computerized Testing and Computer-Administered Testing, is a method of administering tests in which the responses are electronically recorded, assessed, or both. CBT enables educators to author, schedule, deliver, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests, examinations and other forms of testing. It may be a standalone system or a part of a virtual learning environment, possibly accessed via the World Wide Web (Adewale & Etuk-Iren, 2015; Davey, 2011; Kuzimina, 2010; Ridgway, Mccusker, & Pead, 2004). Literature abounds with various advantages of the use of Computer Based Test. The key advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs, (2) instant feedback to students, (3) increased productivity and low operational variability, (4) accommodation of candidates with special needs and (5) improved impartiality (computerized marking does not ‘know’ the students so neither favour nor make allowances for minor errors). Other observable merits of CBT include the elimination of impersonation and cheating. The method also ensures the release of results a few hours after the examination (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014; American Psychological Association, 1986; JAMB, 2015; Obioma, Junaidu & Ajagun, 2013; Ojerinde, 2015; Okoronkwo, 2015). The task of conducting entrance examinations into tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria is saddled on the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB). As an examination body, JAMB conducts entrance examinations for the purpose of admissions into tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Presently, JAMB conducts what it calls “Unified Tertiary Matriculations Examination (UTME)” (Ojerinde, 2015). All candidates intending to be admitted into any type of tertiary educational institutions (Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and similar institutions) in Nigeria have to sit for and pass the JAMB/UTME. The JAMB up till 2012 had been conducting examinations basically by means of the paper and pencil test (PPT) form, and in 2013, it experimented with the computer based testing (CBT). The decision by JAMB in migrating from paper and pencil test (PPT) to computer-based test (CBT) in 2015 was due to various factors; the chief were security challenges, high cost of producing writing materials for paper-based tests, high cost of transporting materials and curbing examination malpractices, flexibility and swiftness in processing results, reduction of corroborated this by identifying the Paper-based Tests (PBT) with many problems such as tedious processes as the examination was conducted at various and distant centres simultaneously and marked manually; high risks of accidents during travels by both the staff involved and the prospective students for the paper examination; cost of conduct of the examination on the part of the examination bodies including honoraria for invigilators, coordinators, markers collators and other allied staff; subjective scoring and plausible manipulation of results; late release of results and missing grades; bank draft method of payment by candidates riddled by fraud, loss of money, stress and trauma. The threat of examination malpractices on the validity of examination has made some examination bodies to give excessive attention to checking examination malpractices even at the test development stage. Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) administers different question formats in which questions do not follow the same order. The alternatives under each question in a format do not also follow the same order. However, it seems that candidates too are not relenting in frustrating and voiding all efforts by these bodies


Despite the increasing use of ICT in educational testing, CBT is fraught with lots of challenges, foremost among which have been identified to include, resistant to change, inadequate power supply, lack of knowledge, low competency and familiarity with computer, lack of qualified personnel, shortage of facilities such as computer and related devices, and erratic internet networks (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014; American Psychological Association, 1986; Davey, 2011; JAMB, 2015; Obioma, Junaidu & Ajagun, 2013; Ojerinde, 2015). Conscious of the relative advantages and challenges of the use of computer technology in testing, between 10th and 21st March, 2015; the JAMB fully utilized the CBT format for the conduct of the UMTE in which a total of 1,475,477 candidates sat for the examination (including no fewer than 192 visually impaired candidates) in more than 400 centres nationwide as well as in seven foreign centres namely Accra in Ghana; Buea in Cameroon; Cotonou in Benin Republic; London in UK; Jeddah in Saudi-Arabia; Johannesburg in South Africa and Addis Ababa in Ethiopia (http://www.jambcbttest.com). Of the 400 centers for the CBT nationwide, nine were in Gombe State in which 19,729 candidates were registered, representing 1.34% of the total number of candidates.


The main objectives of this study of this study is investigate the impact of computer based test CBT on the performance of secondary school students. To arrive at a valid result the specific objectives that will guide the research is:

  1. To find out the effect of CBT on the performance of secondary schools students
  2. To investigate the problems associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria
  3. To discover if any measure is stop or put an end to the problems OF CBT in Nigeria
  4. To proffer solutions to the problem of CBT in Nigeria.


The following research questions will guide the researcher to arrive at a valid result and also to achieve the stated objectives above:

  1. What is the effect of CBT on the performance of secondary school students in Nigeria
  2. What problems are associated with the use of CBT in Nigeria
  3. Is there any policy put in place to put an end to the problems of CBT in Nigeria


The study will expose the teachers, school managements, the government and all stakeholders involve in policy making in Nigeria to the challenges that hinder the proper implementation of CBT in Nigeria. Finally this study will serve as a reference to other researcher who will embark on the same research in the nearest future


Since this research is based on  an investigation on the usage of computer based test on the performance of secondary schools students in Nigeria, the researcher choose samples from schools in Gombe local government area in Gombe state.


Due to limited time and insufficient fund to finance the project the research is limited to one local government area in Delta state


Investigation: the action of investigating something or someone; formal or systematic examination or research

Computer Based Test (CBT): Computer-based test (CBT) are instructions which is delivered by a computer system. A course (CBT) may also be given through a software/program installed on a computer system either through the internet, intranet or a cooperate digital channel

Academic performance: the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.

Secondary school: in between basic school and college.


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