The study was carried to critically investigate the analysis of factors influencing material wastage on building sites in Kaduna State. To achieve this objective, three research questions were stated to guide this study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, tables and graph to analyze research questions. A structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection from the respondents in selected Building Companies in Kaduna State. After the careful analysis of the data, the following findings were revealed that; there are major causes of material wastage; there are factors causing the material wastage according to their influence on the budget of the project and there are possible means of reducing the wastage. The study was concluded with some recommendations that monetary incentives should be introduced so that workers get motivated and thereby change their negative attitude to work; and there is need for workers to exercise more care when carrying out their work especially while working with breakable materials such as sandcrete blocks, tiles, ceiling boards etc.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The construction industry is the backbone of every nation, as it is one of the forces driving the socio-economic growth and development of nations of the world. It improves the quality of live through the provision of infrastructure like roads, schools, hospitals, and other necessary basic facilities.Construction sector activities include the construction, renovation, maintenance and demolition of buildings (residential and non-residential), as well as work conducted in civil engineering projects such as roads and utility systems(ILO 2015).A variety of market segments are involved, including architecture and design, equipment and material manufacture, transportation, and energy and waste management. Value is added by transforming source materials into capital assets essential both for economic activity and the delivery of infrastructure services. The construction sector has its significant impact on income generation and poverty reduction. Its significant job creation potential also comes from its labour-intensive nature and strong links with other economic sectors.
However wastage on building construction site has become a canker worm in Nigerian construction industry. This problem has negatively affected the performance of many projects in Nigeria. Obiegbu (2002) noted that wastage in construction firms has come to stay considering the fact that at least 5% is attained when preparing the estimate for a project which is usually not adequate. Wastage is seen in many ways as peculiarity of construction projects. This means that many construction works have wastage because it is an issue that cannot be divorced from construction work.There have been different definitions of construction material waste by different authors.
For the purpose of this study, building material wastage can be defined as the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on site and those properly used as specified and accurately measured in the work after deducting the cost saving of substituted materials transferred elsewhere in which unnecessary cost and time may be incurred by the material wastage (Shen and Tam, 2002).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Construction materials significantly contribute to the total cost of construction, and the wastage of these materials will negatively impact on the contractors profit, construction cost and duration, and can cause dispute among key project participants. The present state of the building construction industry in Nigeria reflects various problems ranging from delays in project execution/delivery, substandard work, disputes, to cost and time overrun as a result of material shortage and wastages on sites, theft and displacement of materials on sites, as well as poor accounting and security system of the concerned sites/firms (Adafin, 2011). Lan (2008), opined that the rate at which materials are been squandered on site due to poor management is getting too rampant in our society and if not curbed, it can jeopardize the future of our construction industry. This is particularly true in view of the fact that mismanagement of construction resources (i.e materials, plants and labour) affects the continuity and profit margin of such project and if not checked can lead to technical insolvency or bankruptcy.
The causes of construction material waste can be measured and evaluated using a large number of construction phase related factors such as design and documentation, materials procurement and management, site management practices and site supervision including environmental conditions.It is professionally wise that those entrusted with building projects ensures that the material assigned to them for a project is prudently handled to avoid and reduce material wastage to the barest minimum.Thus it is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine factors influencing material wastage in building sites.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this is to examine the factors influencing material wastage in building sites. Specifically the study is set
- To identify if there are wastages of material in building sites.
- To identify the most wasteful material produced during construction operations.
- To determine the most important factors that influence material waste production during construction work.
- To assess measures of minimizing construction material waste.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be relevant for projects owners as it will emphasize on the need for them to supervise the usage of resources issued to the building engineer handling their projects. The study will equip site operatives with handy information on how to avoid material wastage as this is detrimental to efficient project delivery.also this study will be relevant to Contract Engineers as this will expose the need for them to prudently supervise site operatives who they employed and monitor their activities while implementating a project, ensure that both designs, storage facilities commiserate with the available materials as this will help them manage the material to deliver the project.more so this study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and give room for further studies.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDIES
The focus of this is to examine the factors influencing material wastage in building sites.it is meant to identify if there are wastages of material in building sites.it seek to identify the most wasteful material produced during construction operations.it drives towards assessing measures of minimizing construction material waste.However this study is delimited to selected building sites in Kaduna State.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.Do you think there are wastages of material in building sites?
2.What are the most wasteful material produced during construction operations?
- What are the most important factors that influence material waste production during construction work?
- What are the measures of minimizing construction material waste?
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following poses to be a limitation to this study
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of terms
Factors: a circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.
Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Construction:Construction is a very diverse industry that includes activities ranging from mining, quarrying and forestry to the construction of infrastructure and buildings, the manufacture and supply of products, as well as maintenance, operation and disposal.
Construction Site: A construction site is a piece of land where all the activities related to the location of a structure take part.
Building Material:Building material is any material used for construction purpose such as materials for house building. Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction.The choice of these are based on their cost effectiveness for building projects.
Wastage : the action or process of losing or destroying something by using it carelessly or extravagantly.”the wastage of natural resources”
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