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EKEANYANWU SHARON

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Download the complete microbiology project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled ANTIBIOGRAM OF MICRORGANISMS FOUND IN GARRI SOLD IN RELIEF AND EKEONUWA MARKET IN OWERRI, IMO STATE.here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON ANTIBIOGRAM OF MICRORGANISMS FOUND IN GARRI SOLD IN RELIEF AND EKEONUWA MARKET IN OWERRI, IMO STATE.

The Project File Details

  • Name: ANTIBIOGRAM OF MICRORGANISMS FOUND IN GARRI SOLD IN RELIEF AND EKEONUWA MARKET IN OWERRI, IMO STATE.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [56 KB]
  • Length: [42] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This project is titled anti bio gram of microorganism found in Garri sold in Ekeonuwaand Relief Market, Owerri, Imo state.Organisms isolated are Enterococcus spp, Escherchiacoli, Staphylococcus Aureus, Mucor spp, Rhizopus spp, Penicillumspp, Aspergillusspp, Psedomonassspp.

The material used are auto Clare, bursen burner, petri dish, media, wire loop, Macckoneybottle. The method used was the spread plate method. 10 fold serial dilution was used to dilute the sample to be able to get the number of organism ctu/ml of a sample. The result of this project work showed that the organism isolated was as a result of poor hygiene and production Garri through feacal contamination which leads to food poisoning.

This organism isolated is sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to Enthromycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, Nopfloxacin. Therefore Garri that is not improperly produced and preserved should be disposed and food should be handled with care as well as practice hygiene to keep product (Garri) and their environment clean.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ………………………………………………………………………i

Certification ……………………………………………………………………ii

Dedication ……………………………………………………………………..iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………….iv

Abstracts………………………………………………………………………..v

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………….vi

List of tables………………………………………………………………………x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction/literature review………………………………….……………….1

1.1 Background of study……………………………………………………………1

1.1.1 Introduction to Garri………………………………………………………..1

1.1.2 Anti-bio gram……………………………………………………………….2

1.2 Aim/objectives of the study……………………………………………………4

1.3 Literature review……………………………………………………………….5

1.3.1 What is Garri………………………………………………………………………………………5

1.3.2 How is Garri produced……………………………………………………….6

1.3.3 Flow diagram of how Garri is produced…………………………………….7

1.3.4 Types of Garri……………………………………………………..……….8

1.4 Nutrition facts about Garri………………………………..………………….9

1.5 Microbial quality of Garri…………………………………………………….10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Materials and Methodology…………………………………………………12

2.1 Study Area……………………………………….…………………………12

2.2 Sample Collection………………………………………..…………………13

2.3 Materials………………………………………………………………………13

2.3.1 Sterilization of  Materials……..…………………………………………….13

2.3.2 Media Preparation…………………………….…………………………..14

2.4 Reagent………………………………………………………………………..14

2.5 Serial Dilution (10 Fold Serial Dilution)………………….…………………..15

2.6 SamplePreparation……………………………..…………………………..15

2.6.1 Technique Used In Culture…………………………………………………16

2.6.2 Examination of Morphological Characteristics………………..……………16

2.6.3 Purification of Isolates……………………………………..……………..16

2.7 Identification of Bacteria Isolated…………………………………………….17

2.8 Preparation of A Smear/ Gram Staining………………………….……………17

2.9 Check for Biochemical Test…………………………………………………..18

2.9.1 Motility Testing……………………………….…………………………….18

2.9.2 Catalase Test…………………………………………………………………18

2.9.3 Coagulase Test……………………………………………………………..19

2.9.4 Oxidase Test…………………………………………………………………20

2.9.5 Indole Test……………………………………………………..……………20

2.9.6 Citrate Test…………………………………………………………………..21

2.9.7 Voges-Proskaver…………………………………………….……………….21

2.9.8 Methyl Red Test…………………………………………..…………………22

2.9.9 Wet Mount Preparation for Fungal Identification……….………………….23

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Result Analysis……….……………………………………………………….24

3.1 Results ………………………………………………………………………..24

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations………………………………29

4.1 Discussion……………………………………………………..………………29

4.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….30

4.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………31

References ………………………………………………………………………33

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Colonial, Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Bacteria Isolates………………………………………………………………25-26

Table 2: Characterization of Fungi Isolates………………………………………27

Table 3: Table of Sensitivity Test Result in (mm)…………………………….28

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION/LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.1.1 Introduction to Garri

Garri is a staple food eaten mostly by the mid-western part of Nigeria as Red-Garri and white Garri. While the western part eats it as Ijebu-Garri.

There are several factors which influence the quality of Garri, processing conditions and storage conditions.

Garri is a very popular cassava product in Owerri City and across Nigeria due to its wide economic, social and geographical preference but there is little knowledge about the health hazards such as food poisoning that could result from mishandling, unsatisfactory sterilization of products and packages, storage and distribution of Garri. Much work has not been carried out locally to isolate pathogenic organisms that could cause damages to consumers’ health. Therefore effort was put into analyzing smaller-scale local manufactured products, where it is considered that hygienic conditions may not be of highest priority (Ainsworth R; 2004).

The general processing method of Garri, has been found to be generally unhygienic processed, and may cause serious health/environmental hazards to the final consumers.

(Obadina, et al., 2009), observed that after fermentation of the cassava product (Garri) a change in odour was observed. This could be caused by the fermentation process involved, yielding unwanted organisms, therefore causing smell to the final products (Obadina, et al., 2009).

Therefore due to other previous research and findings, Garri is known to have high microbial content, which may be detrimental to human health.

1.1.2 ANTIBIOGRAM

Antimicrobial resistance refers to failure of a given antimicrobial treatment and it is defined as the ability of microorganisms to grow either temporarily or permanently in the presence of antimicrobials. These antimicrobials include antibiotics, food antimicrobial agents, sanitizers, and other substances that act against microorganisms. Antimicrobial resistance no doubt remains a phenomenon of increasing importance as demonstrated by the emergence of different international antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. The problem associated with resistance cannot be over emphasized; this is because of its increasing burden to human health. Antibiotics resistant food borne pathogens may develop increased virulence as revealed by the preponderance of evidences which strongly support the suggestion that antibiotic resistance results in a larger number of human infection than would otherwise be the case by increasing the risk of infection in people who have had prior antibiotic exposure. It is true that bacterial resistance is gaining popularity worldwide due to the problem is posing to the medical and veterinary world. However, outbreaks of infectious diseases all over the globe pictures multi drug resistant organisms as a threat to human health. (Obadina, et al., 2009). Garri is a roasted granule of cassava that is widely consumed by both rural and urban areas. It is by far the most popular form in which cassava is consumed in Nigeria and indeed in West Africa. It is consumed by both young and old more especially from the bulk of Nigerian population. However, the practices that are associated with production, processing and post process handling of Garri such as spreading on the floor, display in open bowl in the markets and sales points and use of various packaging materials to haul finished products from rural to urban areas may exacerbate contamination. Some of these microbial contaminant are capable of surviving in dried cassava powder (Garri). The importance of these bacteria in acquiring and disseminating resistance that could be transmitted to pathogenic or zoonotic bacteria has been inferred. These resistant and multi drug resistant organisms are also capable of spreading from animal to man through food and even become more easy to acquire through Garri since this food is consume draw with or without additives in South Western, Nigeria. Therefore, the present study considered determining the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in dried cassava powder

(Garri) circulating in Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.

1.2 AIM/ OBJECTIVES OF THE WORK

AIM

  1. To determine the different microorganisms found in Garri.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To evaluate the bacteriological Load of Garri purchased from Ekeonuwa and Relief market in Owerri City.
  2. To evaluate the anti-biogram of Garri purchased from Ekeonuwa and Relief market in Owerri City.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.3.1 What is Garri?

Garri is a creamy – white, granular flour with a slightly fermented flavor and slightly sour taste made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz) tubers. Garri is widely known in Nigeria and other West African Countries. It is commonly consumed either dry or soaked in cold water with sugar, coconut, roasted groundnuts, dry fish as compliments or as a paste with hot water called “Eba” which is eaten with varieties of African Soup. It can also be taken soaked or dry without any compliment. When properly stored, it has a shelf – life of six months or more (Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2010).

1.3.2 HOW IS GARRIPRODUCED                                      Garri is traditionally made at home in Africa, using mechanized means. Garri also can be made into commercial quantities. Before the advent of machines, the cassava was hand grated. The tubers are harvested, peeled, removing the covering, and the white pulp is grated in a Garri grinding machine. The grated produce is then put into a jute sack and the sack tied. Traditionally, this is left to ferment for three to seven days depending on the type of Garri being made. This step is very important, as the fermentation process helps to reduce and detoxify the high cyanide content of cassava (Oke, 1969). The Garri-filled sacks are stacked up on each other, and a wooden board placed below and above the sacks. The wooden boards are tied together with the sacks full of the grated cassava in between. Tension is created by tightening the rope and thus allowing water to run out of the grated cassava being processed.

Usually by day three, the grated cassava would have lost quite some water and become reasonably dried. This step is also been by-passed with the use of machines that compress and squeeze water out of the grated cassava. The water running out is very rich in starch. Collected into a basin and let to sediment, pure raw starch is obtained. (Oke, 1969).

1.3.3 FLOW DIAGRAM OF HOW GARRI IS PRODUCED.

Fresh cassava

Washing

Peeling

Washing

Cutting

Grating

Fermentation

Sieving

Roasting

Cooling

Sieving (optional)

Packaging

Garri

1.3.4 TYPES OF GARRI

There are different types of Garri, depending on how is processed, and the region of Africa where it is produced.

The Standards Organization of Nigeria classifies Garri into:

  1. Red Garri

This is the type of Garri commonly found in the mid-western part of Nigeria. It is also called Bendel Garri. It is made exactly the way described above, but for the addition of red palm oil after grating the cassava and the Garri is allowed to ferment for two to three days also. Adding palm oil to the Garri further helps to reduce the cyanide content and gives it a unique Flavour.

b.White Garri

Same as Bendel Garri, left to ferment for two to three days as well, but red palm oil is not added during processing.

  1. Ijebu Garri

Ijebu Garri is made same way too, but allowed to ferment for up to seven days. No palm oil is added. It is also fried to become much crisped. It characteristically has a very sharp tasted and less starchy. Many people from the Western part of Nigeria love this and find it great for “soaking”.

1.4 NUTRITION FACTS ABOUT GARRI

Serving Size: 100g

Calories 360 Calories from Fat 5.4

Amount per Serving

%Daily Value

Total Fat 0.6g 0%

Saturated Fat 0g 0%

Cholesterol 0mg 0%

Sodium 0mg 0%

Total Carbohydrate 87.3g 29%

Dietary Fiber 0g 0%

Sugars 0g

Protein 1.12g 2%

Est. Percent of Calories from:

Fat 1.5%

Carbohydrate 97.2%

Protein 1.2% 7

1.5 MICROBIAL QUALITY OF GARRI

The fermentation of cassava to produce Garri provides an enormous scope of value addition and preserves this starchy food in a wide diversity of flavours, aromas and textures that enrich the human diet and helps to ensure distribution and storage of the product without the need for refrigeration. However, post-process problems of Garri still persist and include loss of microbial stability and spoilage during storage, distribution and marketing. In Benin, the sale and distribution of Garri in local markets is associated with practices such as display of product in open sacs, bowls and mats at points of sale and the use of bare hands during handling and sales. These unhygienic practices which may lead to microbial contamination due to deposition of bio aerosols on exposed products, transfer of microbes from dirty hands and utensils and frequent visits by animals and fomites (which may carry infectious agents), can contribute to the post – process problems of this product. Previous reports have revealed high a vast array of microorganisms in market samples of Garri. The microorganisms isolated from these samples include: Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp. , Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp., etc. (Bartram J, 2003) Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety: the significance of HPCs for water quality and human health. WHO Emerging Issues in Water and Infectious Disease Series. London, IWA Publishing. These microorganisms can cause deterioration in food quality and spoilage, serious food borne illnesses and may pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the source of these microbial contaminants may also be a portal for contamination by more potent pathogenic microbes which may cause an epidemic considering the popularity of the food product.

 

 

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