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Original Author (Copyright Owner):

NZE HOPE CHINAZA

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Download the complete Biochemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF PERSEA AMERICANA AVOCADO PEAR PEEL  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF PERSEA AMERICANA AVOCADO PEAR PEEL

The Project File Details

  • Name:ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF PERSEA AMERICANA AVOCADO PEAR PEEL 
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [424 KB]
  • Length: [37] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

In the for anti microbial effect the back peel of Persea americana (AVACADO) was investigated for activities . the study was to evaluate  the antimicrobial efficacy of  the crude ethanolic and aqueous extract of the peel of  Persea americana against  selected clinical isolates. The agar well diffusion method was used in study also phytochemical screening was conducted on the plant which revealed the presences of saponin, carbohydrates, tannins the  present invention relates to extracts from Persea americana enriched in bioactive compounds which can be used as antimicrobial, antibacterial or spore germinating inhibiting agents the process for obtaining the extract is to isolate molecules and method for using the extracts enriched in bioactive compounds for providing antimicrobial inhibiting effect.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification page    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of Contents     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of Figure –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction   –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              1

1.1       Background to the study         –              –              –              –              –              –              –              1

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              3

2.1       Avocado         –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              3

2.2       Historical origin of the plant   –              –              –              –              –              –              –              3

2.3       Varieties of avocado   –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              3

2.4       Scientific classification of avocado pear        –           –           –           –           –           6

2.5       Cultivation      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              7

2.6       Avocado propagation  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

2.7       Pest and diseases affecting avocado   –           –           –           –           –           –           8

2.8       Harvest and post harvest of avocado  –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.9       Health benefit of avocado      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.10     Chemical composition of avocado     –              –              –              –              –              –              11

2.10.1  Fatty acid composition            –              –              –              –              –              –              –              11

2.10.2 Phytochemicals composition  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11

2.10.3  Pharmacological activities of avocado           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.11     Allergies          –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and method       –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              14

3.1 Materials   –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              14

3.1.1 Chemicals and reagents –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              14

3.2 Equipments and glass wares         –              –              –              –              –              –              –              14

3.3  Sample collection –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              15

3.4 Plants extract preparation –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              16

3.5 Test organism used for the analysis          –           –           –           –           –           –           16

3.6 Antimicrobial susceptibility test   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16

CHAPTER FOUR   

4.0 Results      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              18

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Discussion –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              19

Conclusion      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              21

Recommendation        –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              21

References      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              22

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Medicinal plants are plants which contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. The medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. Medicinal plant have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective methods of using plants’ parts(e.g. seeds, stems, leaves, roots, peel, bark etc) for the treatment of many diseases affecting humans. Many important drugs used in medicine today are directly or indirectly derived from plants due to its bioactive constituents such as; alkaloids, steroids, tannins  e.t.c. (Hill, 1952).

In recent years, secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as sources of medicinal agents. Thus is anticipated that photochemical with adequate antimicrobial efficacy will be use for treatment of bacterial infections.

The avocado (Persea Americana) belongs to the Lauraceae family of tropical and Mediterranean trees and shrubs; other members of this family include: laurel, cinnamon, safaris and green-heart (a timber of the Guiana’s). The avocado is thought to have originated from Mexico and Central  South America; for thousands of years and till today, it has been a popular food in those places. In the mid 17th Century, they were introduced to West Africa, Mauritius and India.

The world is facing explosive increase in resistant strains of microorganisms. It  poses a serious challenge to primary health care in un developing countries, with negative consequences on the economy. Antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin which used to have a high efficacy against bacteria species and strains, have become less effective, due to the increased resistance of  many bacteria.

Previous and recent studies have shown that the leaf, back and seed extract of avocado pear (P. americana) are rich sources of photochemical such as saponins, steroids, alkaloids, as such a source of  (Idriset al 2010. and Ilozueet al, 2014). However information on antimicrobial effect of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu is scanty. Therefore this works aims to determine and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of avocado pear peel extract in Enugu.

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