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Presently, traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs. As such, many institutions are moving towards ICT and multimedia resources as a solution to producing graduates who are creative, can think critically and analytically, and are able to solve problems. This research focus on identify the type of ICT and multimedia resources available in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria, exploring the level of satisfaction of teaching and learning with ICT and multimedia resources, clarifying the level of ICT and multimedia teachings for motivating the students to learn a subject, investigating the level of ICT and multimedia teaching effectiveness in classroom teaching. Moreover, The research also consist some of the ICT medium of teaching and communications such as e-books as the future of scholarly communications, e-reading, participatory learning, distance and online teaching, massive online open courses, re-engineering teaching and learning in Nigerian universities using ICT and multimedia systems, ICT and multimedia research in the university systems, potential benefits of ICT and multimedia teaching system, overview of strategic plan of ICT and multimedia in education sector in Nigeria, multimedia authoring in macromedia director, assessment criteria, and some the problems militating against full adoption and utilization of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria. Furthermore, the research conducted case study approach and survey strategy, the result presented in tabular and figures using simple statistic of frequency and percentage. Summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendation for better adoption and useful utilization of ICT and multimedia resources is also been given.
Title Page- – – – – – – – – – -2
Declaration- – – – – – – – – – -3
Certification- – – – – – – – – – -4
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – -5
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – -6
Table of contents- – – – – – – – – -8
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – -12
CHAPTER ONE- – – – – – – – – -13
1.0 Introduction- – – – – – – – – -13
1.1 Background to the Study- – – – – – – -13
1.1.1 Terminology and History of the Term- – – – – -16
1.2 Statement of the Problems- – – – – – – -18
1.3 Research Question- – – – – – – – -18
1.4 Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – – -19
1.5 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – -20
1.6 Scope and Limitations- – – – – – – – -20
1.7 Definition of Terms- – – – – – – – -21
References- – – – – – – – – – -22
CHAPTER TWO – – – – – – – – – -24
2.0 Literature Review- – – – – – – – – -24
2.1 Concept of Multimedia- – – – – – – – -24
2.2 E-Book/Electronic publishing as the Future of Scholarly
Communications System- – – – – – – – -26
2.3 E-reading- – – – – – – – – – -29
2.4 Participatory Learning- – – – – – – – -29
2.5 Distance and online teaching- – – – – – – -30
2.6 Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs)- – – – – -32
2.7 Re-Engineering Teaching and Learning in Nigerian Universities Using ICT and Multimedia Systems- – – – – – -34
2.8 ICT and Multimedia Research in the University System- – -37
2.9 Potential benefits of ICT and Multimedia Teaching System- – -39
2.10 Overview of Strategic Plan of ICT Multimedia in Education Sector in Nigeria- – – – – – – – – -40
2.10.1 Block Structure of Multimedia System- – – – – -43
2.10.2 Detail Structure of Multimedia System- – – – – -44
2.11 Converting the Multimedia Elements to Digital- – – – -45
2.12 Multimedia Authoring: Macromedia Director- – – – -45
2.13 Assessment Criteria- – – – – – – – -47
2.14 The problems militating against the full utilization of ICT and multimedia resources- – – – – – – – – -47
References- – – – – – – – – – -51
CHAPTER THREE- – – – – – – – – -55
3.0 Research Methodology- – – – – – – – -55
3.1 Research Design- – – – – – – – – -55
3.2 Research strategy- – – – – – – – – -55
3.3 Population- – – – – – – – – – -56
3.4 Sampling- – – – – – – – – – -56
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection- – – – – – -58
3.6 Validity of the Instrument- – – – – – – -59
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument- – – – – – – -60
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection- – – – – – – -60
3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis- – – – – – – -61
References- – – – – – – – – – – -63
CHAPTER FOUR- – – – – – – – – -64
4.0 Data Analysis and Interpretation- – – – – – -64
4.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – -64
4.2 Response Rate- – – – – – – – – -64
4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation- – – – – – -64
Table 4.1 Marital Status- – – – – – – – -65
Table 4.2: ICT and Multimedia Resources Available in Teaching and Learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria.65
Table 4.3: Responsible for managing the ICT and Multimedia resources- -67
Table 4.4: Level of Satisfaction of Teaching and Learning with ICT and Multimedia Resources- – – – – – -68
Table 4.5: Adequacy funding made for ICT and Multimedia Resources- -69
Table 4.6: Are the funding made for these ICT and multimedia resources satisfied? – – – – – – – – – – – -70
Table 4.7: Multimedia Teaching Provides Motivation for Students to Learn a Subject- – – – – – – – – – -72
Table 4.8: The level of use of various ICT and multimedia resources- – -73 Table 4.9: the purposes use of ICT and Multimedia Resources- – -74
Table 4.10: Multimedia teaching is More Affective as Classroom Teaching- – – – – – – – – – – -76
Table 4.11: Important of ICT and Multimedia Resources- – – -77
Table 4.12: The standard of ICT and Multimedia Resources in preservation and management- – – – – – – – – – -78
Figure: 1 Marital Status- – – – – – – – – -65
Figure: 2 Responsible for managing the ICT and Multimedia resources- -67
Figure: 3 Level of Satisfaction of Teaching and Learning- – – -69
Figure: 4 Adequacy funding made for ICT and Multimedia Resources- -70
Figure: 5 Motivations of ICT and Multimedia- – – – – -72 Figure: 6 purposes use of ICT and Multimedia Resources- -75
Figure: 7 Effectiveness of ICT and Multimedia Resources- – – -76
Figure: 8 Important of ICT and Multimedia Resources- – – – -77 References- – – – – – – – – – – -80
CHAPTER FIVE- – – – – – – – – -81
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations- – – – -81
5.1 Summary- – – – – – – – – – -81
5.2 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – – -82
5.3 Recommendations- – – – – – – – – -83
5.4 Bibliography- – – – – – – – – -85
5.6 Appendix I- – – – – – – – – – -90
5.7 Appendix II- – – – – – – – – – -91
1.1 Background to the Study
Conventional institutions of learning have changed far more slowly than the modes of inventive, collaborative, participatory learning offered by the Internet and an array of contemporary mobile technologies. This slow pace of change makes us think we know what a learning institution is or we think we do. But what happens when, rivalling formal educational systems, there are also many virtual sites where learning is happening, from young kids customizing Pokémon (and learning to read, code, and use digital editing tools), to college kids contributing to Wikipedia, to adults exchanging information about travel or restaurants or housing via collaborative sites, learning is happening online, all the time (Davidson, and Goldberg, 2009). The Impact of Information Technology on the Activities of the University has survived other periods of technology-driven social change with its basic structure and roles intact. But the changes driven by evolving information technology are different, since they affect the very nature of the fundamental activities of the university: creating, preserving, integrating, transmitting, and applying knowledge. More fundamentally, because information technology changes the relationship between people and knowledge, it is likely to reshape in profound ways the roles and activities of knowledge-based institutions such as the university (Duderstadt, 2001). Moreover, digital revolution is providing a dizzying array of tools that offer opportunities for learning institutions all over the world to become more vibrant and accessible. This revolution provides the means to share vital information, enabling people to learn more, shape informed opinions, and make decisions in their daily lives. Suddenly, everybody can have access to information that previously was only available to the experts. Everybody can take part in the creative processes of institutions that once were not even in public view. However, this unprecedented and continuous shift has left many institutions struggling to adapt and is forcing them to rethink how to maintain their unique qualities while at the same time adding value. Today, no organization is immune to the disruptions caused by technological innovation (Clough, 2013).
Furthermore, modern digital technologies such as computers, telecommunications, and networks are reshaping both our society and our social institutions. These technologies have increased vastly our capacity to know and to do things and to communicate and collaborate with others. They allow us to transmit information quickly and widely, linking distant places and diverse areas of endeavour in productive new ways. They allow us to form and sustain communities for work, play, and learning in ways unimaginable just a decade ago. Of course higher education has already experienced significant change driven by digital technology. Our management and administrative processes are heavily dependent upon this technology. Research and scholarship are also highly dependent upon information technology, for example, the use of computers to simulate physical phenomena, networks to link investigators in virtual laboratories or “collaboratories,” and digital libraries to provide scholars with access to knowledge resources. There is an increasing sense that new technology will also have a profound impact on teaching, freeing the classroom from the constraints of space and time and enriching learning of by providing our students with access to original source materials. Yet, while information technology has the capacity to enhance and enrich teaching and scholarship, it also poses certain threats to our colleges and universities. We can now use powerful computers and networks to deliver educational services to anyone, at anyplace and anytime, no longer confined to the campus or the academic schedule. Technology is creating an open learning environment in which the student has evolved into an active learner and consumer of educational services, stimulating the growth of powerful market forces that could dramatically reshape the higher education enterprise (Duderstadt, 2001).
Computer developers started looking to multimedia as a delivery system of information using text, pictures, audio, and video. Multimedia computers could be used to increase efficiency and productivity on the job, provide information at out fingertips in the home, and help students learn more effectively both in and out of the classroom. These personal gains meant that people would see computers as practical and useful tools in their everyday lives. Since the late 1980s, multimedia technology and applications have found many places in our lives, at home where a wide variety of games and reference products such as encyclopedias and cookbooks are put to use, at the office where marketing presentations and training are essential how to get a new job done, at school where interactive software programs assist students in learning mathematics, science, and new languages, in shopping malls where interactive computer terminals, called kiosks, help us to design greeting cards or to find out where specific stores are located. Multimedia teaching systems combine texts, graphics, sound and animation. A well designed multimedia teaching system should enhance the communication of ideas. The main goal of communication is to direct the learner’s attention to more important information on the screen. The interaction is one of the most important constituent of computer-based teaching and learning. Interactive learning is a key mechanism for the development of cognitive skills. If a computer interaction system contains well designed examples, simulations, and animations then it can be used to stimulate cognition and learning. Techniques and examples of simulations allow a student to experiment with phenomena which are too complex or expensive to be reproduced in a lab, but which can be modeled using computer environments. One of the main challenges when developing multimedia teaching systems is the capability to adapt the learning experience to different users. The design of adaptive multimedia teaching systems requires significant effort, since dependencies between educational characteristics of learning resources and learner characteristics are too complex to exhaust all possible combinations. Karampiperis and Sampson (2006), address the design problem of the adaptation model proposing an alternative sequencing method that instead of generating the learning path by populating a concept sequence with available learning resources based on adaptation rules, it first generates all possible sequences that match the learning goal in hand and then adaptively selects the desired sequence, based on the use of a decision model that estimates the suitability of learning resources for a targeted learner. Adaptability requires an appropriate scheme for sequencing the learning material to different students. The learning objects presuppose the existence of an environment with the capacity to decide which object is to be presented next. To accomplish adaptation of the educational content to the particular needs of every learner it is necessary, however, for content to be described appropriately and in enough detail for a system to be able to automatically and dynamically establish the most appropriate sequencing of the learning objects for each learner (Supic,H.2009).
1.1.1 Terminology and History of the Term
According to Albarino, (1966). The term “multimedia” was coined by Bob Goldstein (later ‘Bobb Goldsteinn’) to promote the July 1966 opening of his “LightWorks at L’Oursin” show at Southampton, Long Island. On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: “Brainchild of song scribe-comic Bob (‘Washington Square’) Goldstein, the ‘Lightworks’ is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare. Two years later, in 1968, the term “multimedia” was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer one of Goldstein’s producers at L’Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s the term was used to describe presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track (Stewart, and Kowaltzke, 1997). However, by the 1990s ‘multimedia’ took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of McGraw-Hill’s Multimedia: Making It Work, Vaughan, (1993) declared “Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation, and video that is delivered by computer. When you allow the user the viewer of the project to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia.” The German language society, Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache, decided to recognize the word’s significance and iniquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of ‘Word of the Year’ in 1995. The institute summed up its rationale by stating “Multimedia has become a central word in the wonderful new media world” In common usage, the term multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions. Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called “multimedia” computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture, and audio data.
The term ‘information technology’ means computers, ancillary equipment, software and firmware (Hardware) and similar procedures, services (including support services) and related resources. It is also information technology includes any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data or information. Oni, F. A (2003) explained that technological development has in recent times landed mankind into the era of Information Technology (IT). IT, which is generally perceived as a fusion of telecommunication and computer services to initiate, generate, and distribute information, is now becoming the indisputable index for measuring a nation’s level of development. Thus, Woheren (2000) reveals that, IT is a term used to encompass all forms of technology used in the process of acquiring, storing, processing, and distributing information by electronic means (including radio, television, telephone, and computers.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Presently, traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs. As such, many institutions are moving towards problem-based learning as a solution to producing graduates who are creative, can think critically and analytically, and are able to solve problems. This research will focus on various aspects of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria, the research will also cover availability, satisfaction, motivation and effectiveness of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria.
Therefore, multimedia-oriented projects, like many other problem-based learning solutions, can be used alternatively as an innovative and effective tool in a problem-based learning environment for the acquisition of problem-solving skills.
1.3 Research Question
Research question provide focus and direct attention to the major issues in the project. They determine, therefore, what data to collect and how and where to collect them. They should always be related to the problem at hand and represent significant and critical issues in the study. Below are questions of this project:
1) What are the ICT and multimedia resources available in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria?
2) Do you agree the level of satisfaction of teaching and learning with ICT and multimedia resources in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria?
3) Do think ICT and multimedia teachings provide motivation for students to learn a subject?
4) Do you agree that ICT and multimedia teaching is more affective as classroom teaching?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this research are to provide effective and qualitative education in tertiary institutes which will involve creating, authoring, packaging and using multimedia in education system.This research Provides changes in teaching and learning which many years back depended on theoretical aspect in tertiary institute, therefore, the research also laid to assist student with making lesson clear and understandable by well organizing of ICT and multimedia resources which articulate all the content ware of the research. The research seeks to provide motivation for students to learn a subject by interactive with computer and multimedia software in learning, below are specific objectives of the study:
1) To identify the type of ICT and multimedia resources available in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria.
2) To explore the level of satisfaction of teaching and learning with ICT and multimedia resources in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria.
3) To clarify the level of ICT and multimedia teachings for motivating the students to learn a subject.
4) To investigate the level of ICT and multimedia teaching effectiveness in classroom teaching.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will reveal the extent to which ICT Multimedia resources are made available for use in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria. Tertiary institutions are to provide qualitative educations which enhance the growing of entire educational system. As such the findings of the study will be of great importance to the government and management body of the institutions to plan better in order to meet the changing technological needs of their parent institution. Also, it will serve as a guide to management of institutions in the area of planning and establishing newly ICT and multimedia unit. In addition, it will serve as a guide for newly created institutions in setting up their plan for ICT and multimedia in order to meet their need. Finally, it is an important contribution in the field of ICT/Multimedia and knowledge in general.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
Any intensive education research and extension education needs the support of systematic modern ICT services. A well organized and efficiently managed ICT resources and services are pre-requisite to any of the above said activities. Therefore, there is a vast scope to study the various aspects of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria, the research will only cover availability, satisfaction, motivation and effectiveness of ICT and multimedia resources in teaching and learning in selected tertiary institutions in Zaria.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined in the context in which they are used in this study:
Application: The act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose or the action of putting something into operation
Information: Knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. And it can be a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn.
Communication: The activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information or a connection allowing access between persons or places
Technology: The practical application of science to commerce or industry or the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems.
Multimedia Resources: is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms.
Teaching: the act, practice, or profession of a teacher
Learning: the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, being taught, or experiencing something.
Tertiary Institutions: A higher institution that promotes teaching, research and learning established purposely to meet the goals and objectives of the institution.
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