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The need for internal control in an organization cannot be overemphasized.

Both small and large size organization engages in internal control towards the effective and efficient utilization of resources.

Mean while, the internal control adopted by organization will vary.

This is as a result of the size, nature of operation, environment, influence, as well as financial strength of the organizations.

Presently, many organizations both profit and non-profit making are encountering serious financial crisis because of poor internal control system adopted.

The emphasis here is that internal control should not be underrated in any organization. Base on this Emeka .E. (2000) opined  thanks said that there should be well articulation organizational structure with the unit chain of command and well delegated authority to achieve for money, having full recognized this, the consultative committee of accounting bodies in United kingdom (Uk) had this to say about internal control system.

It is established by the internal control system it is establishes by the management in order to carry out the business of the enterprise in an orderly manner, to ensure adhere to management policies, safeguard the accuracy of the records.

Generally the reliability and effectiveness of internal control system in Nigeria Organization , Kogi state University Anyigba (KSU) is used as a case study.

It is used because of its reliability, transparency, accounting, effectiveness and efficiency.

  • Background of the Study

A formal definition of internal control was originally published by accounting profession in 1949.

This was repeatedly used in subsequent publications including statement of addition standard (ASA) and standard in Auditing procedure (SAP). In both publications, internal control was defined as: the plan of the organization and all the coordination method and measures adopted within a business to safeguarded its assets, check accuracy and reliability of its accounting data, promote the organizational efficiency and encourage adherence to prescribed managerial policies.

In recent auditing literatures, internal control have been seen as a separate system superimposed upon accounting system and investigation and the testing of both system time this contention is to behold throughout this project work i.e there is no separation between accounting system and internal control system.

In order to acquire or achieve the aim of, an efficient and effective internal control system, there must be principal of separation of functions and the functions must be separated if internal control system is to exist in an organization such as authorization and recording, any violation of the above principal will render the system of internal control ineffective.

It is working to rote from the foregoing definition that internal control does not only relate to accounting and  financial matters but it also relates to the entire system of control in an organization for instance, where you have security officers at the gate of the company premises searching all vehicle leaving the premises, this would be part of internal control system in the organization, such check cannot however be said by any stretch of interpretation to be accounting for a financial matter.

  • Statement of  Problem

In an organization where there are employees at various departments, there should be adequate internal control system with laid down rules for salary control procedures.

It is the responsibility of the management to initiate these control measure and make sure that they are well implemented and  should assess the prospect and short coming at the control so that  the effectiveness of the control over salaries and wages are ascertained. However, most organization have fully realized the important of the internal control as one of the basic for achieving  organizational goals and have now adopted this system act as a check on its day to day activities. Despite these facts, the organization are still faced with multi-dimensional problems such as fraud, errors, ghost, workers and others. It is the researcher belief that the adoption of effective implementation of a good system on internal control on salaries and wages will take care of these short coming.

This research work is embarked on to enable the researcher study the wages and salaries control use fullness in Nigeria organization using Kogi state university Anyigba ,Kogi state as a case study

The study specially attempt consuming the following questions:

  1. Are time records kept by the means of supervised check recording ?
  2. Are personal files kept for each employees by personal independent at wages department?
  • Are there independent comparism of wages paid with budgets and investigation of variance?
  1. Is an authority required before an employee can be collect unclaimed wages?
  2. Is the pay roll checked by the separate personal independently or with collective effort of the personal ?
  3. It was against this back drop that Anao R.A(2008:18) pointed out this ‘’kogi state university Anyigba has be recognized the need to join the band wagon of the modern organization for staying ahead of change on the environment for meeting the needs and requirement effectively and  efficiently’’?

It is the researcher belief and conviction that .if these few question are answer with absolute sincerity, it will go a long way in solving some of the problem facing the Nigerian organizations

1.3 Objective of the Study

  1. The following objective are the research work is carries out to achieve.
  2. To find out what internal check and controls are also to know how often they are re-conducted in Nigerian organizations.
  3. To see whether Nigerian organization are properly
  4. To assess   whether there is a reliable existence of staff control system in the Nigeria organizations. To contribute towards evolving a sound internal control system for Nigeria organization using kogi state  university   as case study.


1.4 Statement of hypothesis

This is a tentative statements or assumption by the researcher as to the likely outcome of the research.

The following hypothesis has been formulated for the purpose of this study.

Ho: Installation of internal audit department constitutes a good means of internal control in an organization,

H1: Installation of internal audit department does not constitute a goods means of internal control in an organization.

Ho: Separation of responsibility does not provide a sound means of internal control in an organization.

Hi: Separation of responsibility provides a sound means of internal control in an organization.

1.5 Significance of the Study

  1. This study without doubt is viable to those who take decision especially financial decision in Nigerian organization.
  2. The study will also create an avenue for the cultivation of a virile and sound system of internal control by management of Nigerian organization so as o see the need for uniformity and efficiency in the structure of internal control system.
  • Going by the lack of effectiveness and efficiency in conducting the audit and reporting of audit findings areas (1997:623) declares ‘’that for an audit staff should be independent of both operation and accounting department and that it should report directly to a higher level of authority management.

Furthermore, the study will create a major awareness to the general public about the importance of a sound internal control system in the Nigerian organizations.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

In the bid of making a comprehensive research work the researcher wishes to state the area which the study will cover.

The study covers as overview of appraising of internal control system in Kogi State  University Anyigba.

In view of this, recommendation will be made covering  same problem area with the objectives of reducing problem  applicable to appraising internal control system. This research study is constrained by the major factor of time, and financial  factors to help get vivid information .out however, the finding shall be made of immense value of any interested future researchers.

  1. Time Factor :This has greatly limitative against the researchers ability to gather enough material to write this work and academic commitment has also contributed negatively in the cause of carrying out this research. The researcher had to combine the project with one’s studies which is very difficult.
  2. Financial Constraint: The inability to cover effectively all the department in the institution and also to compare with other institution of higher learning could as well be attributed to lack of sufficient funds

Despite these limitations, the researcher was able to make further in collecting some available information and review literature of some authors to buttress this  research work.

1.7 Definition of key Terms

  1. Accounting System: This is the medium through which fundamental accounting concepts are applied to financial transactions and preparation of financial statements. Accounting system  focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management.
  2. Accounting system: Is defined as the recording of financial transaction that summaries of the financials may be presented in  financial report known as bookkeeping.
  • Compliance test: It is the test which provides evidence that internal control procedures are being applied as prescribed.
  1. Financial Control : This is known as monitoring of actual financial activities and measuring result with plans and identifying deviation investigation those deviation and taking corrective actions thereof.
  2. Financial Control: It is the planning, performance evaluation and coordination of financial activities aimed at achieving desired return on investment.
  3. Internal Control: It is a system of control financial otherwise establishment by management in order to turn an organization in an efficient manner.
  • Internal Control: Is the process of assuring achievement of an organization’s objective in operational effectiveness and efficiency, reliable financial reporting, and compliance with law, regulation and polices. It is a means by which an organization resource are  directed monitored and measured.
  • Internal Appraisal: It is the assessment or evaluation of the performance of workers in order to reward those who do more work with more compensation



The research topic “Appraisal of  internal control system in an organization” cover preliminary pages and five chapters

The preliminary stages contains Title page, certificate page, dedication, acknowledgement, list of tables, abstract and table of  contents

  1. Chapter one covers; introduction, Background to the study statement of problems objectives of the study statement  of hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of key terms organization of work and end of chapter references.
  2. Chapter two contains: literature review, introduction, an overview of a place under study, meaning of internal control, scope of internal control system, problem of internal control and end of chapter references.
  • Chapter three contains: Research methodology, introduction research design, area of the study, source and sampling techniques, validation of instrument and method of data anatysis.
  1. Chapter four covers : presentation of data, introduction, data presentation and analysis test of hypothesis and discussing of result and major finding summary of the study conclusion suggestions for further research recommendation bibliography and appendix.






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