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ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS OF RADIATION EMISSION FROM MICROWAVE OVEN AMONG THE USERS OF MICROWAVE OVEN (CASE STUDY OF ENUGU URBAN)

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  • Name: ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS OF RADIATION EMISSION FROM MICROWAVE OVEN AMONG THE USERS OF MICROWAVE OVEN (CASE STUDY OF ENUGU URBAN)
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [63 KB]
  • Length: [57] Pages

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        i

Approval Page     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ii

Certification         ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        iii

Dedication  ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        iv

Acknowledgement         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        v

Abstract      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        vi

Table of Contents ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        vii

List of Tables       ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ix

List of Figures      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        1

1.2     Statement of Problem    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        3

1.3     Objectives of the Study ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        3

1.4     Significance of the Study         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        4

1.5     Scope of Study     ..        ..        ..        .         …      ..        ..        4

1.6     Literature Review          ..        ..        .         ..        …      ..        ..        4

CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BASE OF STUDY

2.1     Origin         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        15

2.2     Types of Microwave Oven      ..        .         ..        ..        ..        16

2.2.1  Standard Microwave Oven      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        16

2.2.2  Grill Microwave Oven   ..        ..        ..        ..        …      ..        17

2.2.3  Conviction Microwave Oven   ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        17

2.3     Designs       ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        18

2.4     The Magnetron tube Subassembly    ..        ..        ..        ..        20

2.5     Control Switches Relay and Motors ..        ..        ..        ..        20

2.5.1  Front Panel ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        21

2.6     How do Microwave Ovens Work     ..        ..        ..        ..        21

2.7     Radiation    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        22

2.7.1  Types of Radiation        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        23

2.7.1.1 Non-Ionizing Radiation         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        24

2.8     Hazard associated with direct exposure to microwave  ..        25

2.8.1  Frequency Versus Depth         ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        25

2.8.2  Tissue Damage     ..        ..        ..        .         …      ..        ..        27

2.9     Effect of Microwave Oven on the Food we eat    ..        ..        27

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1: Research Design     …      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        29

3.2     Sample Size          …      ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        29

3.3     Study Population and Sample Size   ..        ..        .         …      29

3.4     Source of Data     ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        29

3.5     Method of Data Collection      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        30

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS       ..        ..        ..        31

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.1     Discussion ..         ..        .         ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        37

5.2     Summary of Findings    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        40

5.3     Conclusion ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        40

5.4     Recommendations         ..        ..        .         …      ..        ..        ..        41

5.5     Area of Further Research        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        41

5.6     Limitations ..        ..        .         …      ..        ..        ..        ..        42

References ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        43

Questionnaire       ..        ..        .         ..        ..        ..        ..        46

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

 

It is possible that millions of people are ignorantly sacrificing their health in exchange for the convenience of microwave ovens. Why did the Soviet Union ban the use of microwave in 1976? Who invented microwave and why1, the answers to these questions may shock you into throwing your microwave oven in the trash.

Microwaves are radiations. They are classified as non-ionizing radiation2. Radiation which can change the position of an atom but is not strong enough to alter their structure, composition or proportions, even though non-ionizing radiation is not enough to alter the structure of an atom, it is still able to cause physical alternations. A clear example of how non-ionizing radiation can harm you is the damage caused to your skin and eyes by the sun. Therefore when you are using microwaving cooking, you are exposing yourself to microwave oven radiation3.Tissue directly exposed to microwave oven are subjected to the same deformities molecule go through and this can in turn cause you to experience microwave sickness. People may experience any or all of these signs after being exposed to high level of microwave radiation such as impaired cognition, nausea, vision problem, depression, irritability, weakened immune system, headache, dizziness, Insomnia, disturbance and frequent urination4.

One short term study found significant and disturbing changes in the blood of individuals consuming microwave milk and vegetables. Food process through microwave ovens causes change in the blood of an individual. It decreases hemoglobin level and increases cholesterol level5.

The in-depth research conducted by the Russians discovered the biological effect which microwave oven poses. The results were staggering enough which led to ban of microwave oven by the Soviet Union due to the following findings:

  • Carcinogenic substances were formed from the microwaving of nearly all the food tested.
  • Microwaving milk and grains results in carcinogenic substances being formed through the conversion of crimon acid.
  • Microwaving prepared meats caused cancer – causing agent such as d-Nitroodienthanol amines to form.
  • Microwaving fruit as a method of thawing resulted in the conversion of glucoside and galactoside functions into carcinogenic substances.

Despite these comprehensive studies, eight percent of the UK’s populations are still using microwave oven6. Is it not the time more researches are done into the effects they have on us and food we put into them?

Finally, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulated the manufacture of microwave ovens since 1971 on the basis of current knowledge about microwave radiation. The agency believes those microwave ovens that meet the FDA standards are used according to the manufacturer’s instructions are safe to use7.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

  • Microwave ovens leak radiations which are harmful to the health of the users11.
  • There is an increase circulation of microwave oven in Enugu Urban.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • To assess the knowledge of microwave among the users of microwave oven.
  • To assess the awareness of microwave leakage from microwave oven by the users
  • To also access if microwave oven users are often aware of potential health hazards from the exposure to microwave
  • To assess the factors which lead to this potential health hazard by the users of microwave oven.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  1. It is expected that this study will help to encourage further research on health effect associated with microwave ovens radiation.
  2. It is also expected to bring or create more awareness on the menace caused by microwave.

1.5     SCOPE OF STUDY

The study was carried out among individual and fast food restaurants using microwave oven in Enugu urban.

 

1.6     LITERATURE REVIEW

The principal cause of health effects from microwaves can be deduced if we think about how we use our microwave oven. We use it to heat food and indeed if we are exposed to microwaves at high enough level, then the cells and organs in our body will be subjected to a temperature increase. The heating effect arises as follows: The human body is composed of molecules that when subject to the effect of electromagnetic radiation are made to vibrate. Bearing in mind that typical microwave frequency is 2450MHz. The rate of vibration is very rapid and generates a lot of friction within the area of body irradiated8

Experiment carried out has shown that if the received radiation is sufficient to raise the body temperature by more than 50c, then the radiation received is lethal. To understand this, it is necessary to know that body temperature is homeostatically controlled. An increase in temperature around 50c from microwave oven is beyond the homeostatic control of the body and death may result. Your body’s electrical signals are well within the range of those that can be stimulated by ambient microwaves and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, that are harmful, unnatural type of stimulation can seriously impact your body9.

Artificial electromagnetic radiation changes the frequency of your body’s electromagnetic fields through a process called entrainment (or sympathetic resonance). Entrainment is the tendency of an object to vibrate at the same frequency as something outside of it. In other words, powerful artificial electromagnetic field overwhelm your body’s own electrical field changing their frequency and distorting the balance of the body’s electromagnetic field, radiation within the cells in the form of electromagnetic oscillation. This oscillation can stubbornly remain inside you wreaking havoc with your body most important processes10.

Increase publicity and articles in many professional journals prompted the radiological health sections of the Orange County to conduct an accelerated survey of radiation leakage from microwave oven. Ninety three ovens were surveyed throughout the county. 7% of the residential ovens and 23% of the commercial oven tested were measured to be leaking above the present voluntary industry maximum standard of 10mW/cm.28% of the home ovens and 41% of commercial ovens had some types of mechanical problems. The greatest potential hazard exist for personnel operating commercial microwave oven in restaurants and other food service area due to greater “on time “of the oven, the proximity to the oven while in operation, the excessive wear on the oven due to increase use and the lack of proper cleaning and maintenance of the oven11.

Experiment were performed on male fisher rats exposed to microwave radiation  for 30 days at three different frequencies, 900,1800, and 2450 MHz Animal were divided into 4 groups: Group I (sham exposed). Animals not exposed to microwave radiation but kept under same condition as that of other groups, Group II: animals exposed to microwave radiation at frequency 900MHz at specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953×10-4 W/kg Group III: Animal exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835×10-4 W/kg and Group IV: Animals exposed to 2450MHz at SAR 6.672×10-4 w/kg. At the end of the exposure period animal were sacrificed immediately and DNA damage in brain tissue was assessed using alkaline comet assay. The result demonstrated DNA damaging effect of low level microwave radiation in brain12.

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