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EZEKWONNA CHIKODILI IJEOMA

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The Project File Details

  • Name: ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRAINTS ON HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN ANAMBRA STATE
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  • Length: [134] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to assess constraints on human resource
development (HRD) in Technical vocational education. The study
was designed to determine from technical teachers the extent to
which they considered the constraints affecting HRD in TVE
programmes. Simple descriptive survey design was used for the
study. The population of this study consisted of all technical
teachers in Anambra State. The instrument used in the collection
of data was 70 item questionnaire validated by four experts in
Vocational Education Department. The questionnaire elicited
information from the technical teachers on five distinct areas
considered constraints on HRD in TVE. One hundred and thirty
(130) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the
respondents but 102 copies of the questionnaire were completed
and returned. The data collected were analysed using frequency
count and mean to answer 6 research questions posed for the
study. Four (4) research hypotheses were appropriately tested
using ANOVA and t-test statistic tools at 0.05 level of significance.
The results indicated that technical teachers considered non
availability of material resources, technical teachers’ inadequacy,
inadequate human resource management, public misconception
on the nature of TVE and financial constraints as constraints on
HRD in TVE programme. Based on the conclusion, strategies that
could improve HRD in TVE will be adopted to help to improve
teaching and learning in TVE programmes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE I APPROVAL PAGE II CERTIFICATION III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IV DEDICATION V ABSTRACT VI TABLE OF CONTENTS VII LIST OF TABLE X LIST OF APPENDICES xi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 5 Purpose of the Study 7 Significance of the Study 8 Research Questions 9 Research Hypotheses 10 Scope of the Study 11

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Theoretical Concept on Human Resource Development 12 Basis for the Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria 17 Constraints on Human Resource Development in TVE 22  Non-availability of material resources 23  Inadequate technical teachers 25  Inadequate human resource management 26  Public misconception on the nature of TVE programmes 28  Financial constraints on HRD in TVE programmes 29 Strategies for Improvement on HRD in TVE in Nigeria 41 Summary of Review of Related Literature 57

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Design of the Study 58 Area of the Study 59 Population of the Study 59 Instrument for Data Collection 60 Validation of the instrument 61

Reliability of the Instrument 61 Method of Data Collection 62 Method of Data Analysis 62

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 64 Research Question 1 64 Research Question 2 65 Research Question 3 66 Research Question 4 68 Research Question 5 70 Research Question 6 71 Hypothesis 1 74 Hypothesis 2 76 Hypothesis 3 77 Hypothesis 4 78 Summary of major findings 79

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 86 Discussion of the Findings 86 Conclusion 94 Implication of the Study 95 Recommendations 96 Suggestion for further Study 97 Summary of the Study 98 References 100

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study
Human resource could be seen as people, who work in organizations,
having certain qualities or abilities, talents, and attitudes; and who influence
production, quality and profitability. They are people who could set out
strategies and goals, design work systems, produce goods and services, monitor
quality, allocate financial resources and market the products and services
(Bratton and Gold, 1999). According to Eyiuche (2002), human resources make
up the ultimate basis for the wealth of a nation. Human resources differ from
other resources because of their ability to evaluate and to question management
actions. For instance, capital and material resources are passive factors of
production while human resources are the active agents that accumulate capital,
exploit both natural and material resources, build social, economic and political
organizations and cause national development enhancement. In the context of
formal education, human resources have to be specifically educated in order to
be able to carry out their professional responsibility (Oluremi, 2001). However,
the problem here rests on the appropriate development of human resources.
As education is regarded as national investment, the most valuable of all
capital is that invested in human beings. It appears that lack of adequate

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investment in human resources development has been responsible for the slow
growth of the less developed countries in the world. Human resource
development is a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons
who have skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and
political development of a nation (Eyiuche, 2002). This implies that human
resource development (HRD) involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and the
application of knowledge and skills acquired. HRD according to Nwangwu
(2007) is a process of staff improvement through strategies that foster self
development, self actualization and self growth. Development involves all those
activities that are geared towards the growth and improvement of skills,
knowledge, abilities and attitudes of the staff of the system. A well planned and
systematic HRD programme will enhance the performance of the TVE
programmes in terms of increased productivity, and will reduce costs, as well as
engender high staff morale and stability in the system. HRD is growth oriented
that may require in-service programmes (Nwangwu, 2007).
It seems that a greater proportion of problems confronting the
development of technical education in Nigeria currently are rooted in
inadequate supply of technical teachers arising from inadequate HRD strategies.
The peculiarities of inadequate supply of technical education teachers may
include deficiencies in quality and quantity. Most technical teachers available
appear to lack industrial experience, and pedagogical training. Also limited

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training facilities constitute the greatest bottle-neck for staff training and re
training (Olu and Beecroft, 1987). Eze (2007) stated that TVE teachers should
be specialist in their trades because lack of adequately trained TVE teachers
could affect students’ enlistment in TVE programmes. Eze emphasized that if
people lack technical skill, knowledge and entrepreneurial consciousness, most
of the constituents of the environment will be greeted with ignorance and there
may not be any commitment to discover and tap the available resources because
the knowledge may be lacking and the necessary technical skill may not be
acquired. In a country where the technical staff and human resources available
lack these abilities, it is assumed that such country might remain
underdeveloped. It is also assumed that such country where the necessary
human resources, lack adequate knowledge and the technical know-how for
promoting economic development, advancement may not be foreseen and
predicted.
The development of human resources has been the main focus of TVE
because TVE objectives rest on skill acquisition and application of scientific
knowledge in problem solving. It also involves practice, application of
knowledge and manual inhibitions of mastery using the hands. TVE helps in
meeting the manpower needs of the society and no country has ever been able to
achieve and sustain any degree of technological development without a
conscious and conscientious effort to develop its technical manpower. TVE

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ensures the production of adequate and appropriate productive manpower which
leads to wealth creation, material progress, resource base development and
national empowerment which accelerates economic growth, reduce inequality
and eradicate absolute poverty.
TVE enhances the manual dexterity, technical skill and knowledge, and
the entrepreneurial consciousness of the people with a view to improving the
economic development of the country through human empowerment. Also the
solution to underdevelopment in a country and to minimize economic
backwardness and instill capacities and instruction to progress is to introduce
and implant a robust and viable TVE system. However, the achievement of
these good qualities of TVE programmes depends to a great extent on the
development and proper utilization of human resources. TVE teacher as a key
factor in human resources need to be adequately developed through training and
effectively utilized for proper achievement of TVE objectives and also to enable
them carryout their professional and administrative duties. The success and
effectiveness of TVE depend on the quality and quantity of teachers available
for the TVE programmes. That is to say the realization of educational goals of
TVE programmes depend to large extent upon the quality and quantity of TVE
teachers engaged in TVE system because the TVE teachers cannot give out
what they do not have.

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In developing TVE teachers as a key factor in human resource
development there appears to be some constraints. This may be one of the
reasons why most students do not study technical vocational courses in tertiary
institutions in the state. The constraints may be in so many forms. It can be in
form of lack of availability of adequate trained technical teachers, non
availability of material resources or inadequate human resources management.
In order to make human resources productive and dependable, there should be
adequate HRD strategies in TVE programmes. It is against this background that
this study is designed to assess the extent of the constraints on human resource
development and strategies for improvement in TVE programmes in Anambra
State.

Statement of the Problem
Technical vocational education is a powerful vehicle for development and
sustenance of competence, efficiency and effectiveness in graduates of
technology education (Okoye, 2006). Unfortunately, the human resources
development in this discipline appears to be seriously neglected by successive
governments in Nigeria. For instance, early 80’s, the Federal Government made
efforts to empower technical personnel in the country through Technical
Teachers Training programme (TTTP) Over-seas, and subsequently in
Indigenous Universities, the programme had since stopped due to the same

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negligence. Consequently, there has always been dearth of professionally
trained technical instructors / teachers or practitioners, inadequate supply of
training materials and facilities, and grossly inadequate funding. These
shortcomings form constraints against adequate HRD in technological studies in
Nigeria and Anambra State in particular. Admittedly Nwanoruo (2002) maintain
that some of the constraints on HRD in Nigeria include lack of adequate
funding, non-availability of instructional materials and lack of qualified
technical manpower. The consequence is that the graduates of this programme
are not adequately trained. As a result they appear to feel inferior and thus
entertain some inferiority complex and incompetent amidst counterparts. Worse
still, there has always been low regard for manual application which had always
assumed greater proportion among TVE graduates (Okorie, 2002).
On the other hand, the learning environment appertaining to TVE
programmes is nothing to write home about. For instance, Eze (2007) noted that
poor training and learning environment in TVE workshops have resulted in
production of incompetent vocational graduates who cannot adapt to changing
economic situation in Nigeria. In this awareness, it becomes pertinent to
organize a study in this category to assess the constraints that affect HRD and
determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes.
.

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Purpose of the Study
This study intends to assess some constraints on human resource
development and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE
programmes. Specifically, the study intends to assess the;
1. Extent to which non-availability of material resources affects HRD in
TVE programmes.
2. Extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affects HRD in TVE
programmes.
3. Extent to which inadequate human resource management affects HRD in
TVE in Anambra State.
4. Extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes
affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.
5. Extent to which financial constraints affects HRD in TVE in Anambra
State, and
6. Determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programme in
Anambra State.

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Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of benefit to technical vocational
administrators, technical vocational teachers and students.
By this study, the extent to which the identified constraints affect HRD
will be assessed. It is believed that the problematic issues that result in non
availability of material resources, public misconception of nature of TVE and
financial constraints will be unveiled too. Consequently, the strategies for
improvement will be determined and also implemented in TVE programmes.
The assumption is that most of the students will shun inferiority complex and
pick a vocation in TVE. In the long run many more intelligent and brilliant
students will be attracted to enroll into TVE programmes with a willing
intension to make enviable achievement and a competitive career for self
reliance.
If constraints on human resource development in TVE programmes are
adequately assessed as a result of the findings of this study, the perennial
problem of inadequate supply of qualified technical vocational teachers in TVE
will be solved. This is believed to bring job satisfaction among technical
teachers which will make them also to impart the knowledge and skills needed.
If adequate knowledge and skill are imparted to the students, it is deemed that
students will become more productive and independent citizens.

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If findings on the extent to which inadequate human resources
management affect HRD in TVE programmes are discovered, it will help the
TVE stakeholders to improve on human resource development in TVE
programmes in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions are posed to guide the study
1. To what extent does non-availability of material resources affect
HRD in TVE programmes?
2. To what extent does technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE
programmes?
3. To what extent does inadequate human resource management affect HRD
in TVE in Anambra State?
4. To what extent does a public misconception of the nature of TVE affect
HRD in TVE in Anambra State?
5. To what extent does a financial constraint affect HRD in TVE
programmes?
6. What strategies could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State?

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Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level
of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference among the opinion of technical teachers
of NAU,Awka; FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on
the extent to which non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between mean responses of technical
teachers in FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the
extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE
programmes.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the opinion of technical
teachers of NAU,Awka and FCE(T),Umunze in Anambra State on the extent to
which inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in
Anambra State.

Ho4: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male
technical teachers and female technical teachers in TVE on the extent to which
public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affect HRD in TVE in
Anambra State.

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Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to an assessment of constraints on HRD in TVE
and strategies for improving HRD in Anambra state.
This study was limited to some influential factors such as: which non
availability of material resources; technical teachers’ inadequacy; inadequate
human resource management; public misconception on the nature of TVE
programmes and financial constraint that could affect HRD in TVE. This study
focuses on technical teachers’ in NAU, Awka; FCE (T) and technical colleges
in Anambra State that offer technical courses. The technical teachers in private
establishments that offer programmes in TVE were not covered in study.

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