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The Project File Details
This study, Assessment of different methods of sterilization of HSG equipment in Radiology Department in Enugu Urban, was done using questionnaire and interviews methods of data collection. The main purpose of the study was to determine different methods of sterilizing equipment used during HSG procedures in our locality, to assess if attention is given to monitoring of methods used for sterilization of HSG equipment in our locality and to compare the different methods of sterilizing HSG equipment in Radiology departments with a view to recommending the best option available. Eight standard Radiology centers in Enugu Urban were used for this research and a total number of 70 questionnaires were used for the study. The results showed that three major methods of sterilizing HSG equipment are available in the locality of study, which includes high pressure steam (autoclave), Dry heat (oven), and chemicals. 47.84% of the centers make use of chemical,32.47% and 24.21% centers make use of high pressure stem (Autoclave) and dry heat (oven) respectively. The attention given to monitoring of HSG equipment is commendable as 97.57% of the centers monitor the procedure routinely. The result showed that most Radiology centers in Enugu Urban use chemical method of sterilization in preference to high pressure steam (Autoclave) which is a better method of sterilizing HSG equipment. The result simply showed that most Radiology centers in our locality are not in tone with current trend of sterilization as chemicals method of sterilization is hazardous to both patients and staff.
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – ii
Certification- – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – v
List of Tables- – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – ix
Table of Contents- – – – – – – x
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.0. Introduction 1
1.1. Statement of Problem 4
1.2. Objectives of Study 5
1.3. Significance of Study 5
1.4. Scope of Study 5
1.5. Review of Related Literature 6
CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
2.0. Introduction 14
2.1. Basic Trolley Setting, During HSG Procedures 15
2.1.1. Radiation Sterilization 15
2.1.2. Methods of Heat Sterilization 17
2.1.3. Sterilization by Steam 19
2.1.4. Sterilization by Dry Heat 21
2.1.5. Chemical Sterilization 24
2.2. Monitoring Sterilization Procedures 29
2.3. Storage of Sterile HSG Equipment 31
2.4. Shelf Life of Sterilized HSG Equipment 32
2.5. Other Sterilization Methods 34
2.5.1. Gas Sterilization 34
2.5.2. Other Chemical Sterilant 35
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design 37
3.2. Target Population 37
3.3. Selection Criteria 38
3.4. Source of Data 38
3.4.1 Primary Source Data 39
3.4.2 Secondary Source Data 39
3.5 Method of Data Collection 39
Data Presentation And Analysis 47
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion 60
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Hysterosalpingographgy (HSG) is a radiological contrast examination used to outline the uterus and the fallopian tubes. It is employed to diagnose a suspected intrauterine tumour, congenital malformation, or suspected fallopian tubes blockage1. HSG entails the injection of a radio-opaque contrast agent into the cervical canals under fluoroscopy with image intensification. A normal result shows the filling of the uterine cavity and bilateral filling of the fallopian tube with the contrast agent. HSG could be done with either oil contrast agent or water soluble contrast agent. Oil-based media remained popular until the 1960s. Their popularity was based on their ability to demonstrate a good delayed film when image-intensified fluoroscopy was not universally available. Because most HSG is now performed by image intensified fluoroscopy, many experts concluded that oil based media should no longer be used, due to the availability of what are perceived to be safer water soluble peparations2.
This examination is usually done on outpatient basis. It should be performed in the proliferative phase of the cycle to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure of an early embryo3. In addition, it obviates the unlikely possibility of inducing an ectopic pregnancy by performing the procedure after fertilization and altering embryo transport through the fallopian tube. The procedure should not be carried out during the active stage of any pelvic infection4.
During HSG procedures, HSG equipment such as vulsellum forceps, vagina speculum, uterine sound, uterine cannula, tissue forceps, the couch and some of the devices that are essential to producing successful quality result are usually sterilized to enhance aseptic conditions.
However, because they are typically designed for a reuse, they also transmit pathogen if any of the processes involved in their decontamination is compromised. This gives rise to the introduction of pathogenic micro-organisms into the patient’s body and initiate an infection process, owing to the fact that patients in hospitals often have low immunity to infection6.This leads to iatrogenic or nosocomial infections in the patients. Iatrogenic infection is synonymous to nosocomial infections and they are infections which are as a result of treatment or health care service unit, but secondary to the patient original condition6.
Sterilization of equipment used in HSG procedure can be achieved if any of the steps involved in reprocessing, cleaning, disinfection or sterilization are adquate10. Sterilization techniques include all the means used to completely eliminate or destroy all micro-organisms on objects, including tools used to diagnose or treat patients. To be effective, sterilization requires time, contact, temperature and with steam, sterilization high pressure.
In radiology departments today, there are different method of sterilizing HSG equipment which ranges from radiation form of sterilization, which includes electron beams, x-rays, gamma rays and subatomic particles. Other methods include, high pressure saturated steam using an autoclave, or dry heat using an oven. These methods are the most common and readily available methods of heat sterilization10. An alternative to high pressure steam or dry heat sterilization is chemical sterilization (often called, “cold sterilization”).Monitoring sterilization procedures is another important aspect of sterilization to ensure effective sterilization and sterilization can be monitored routinely using a combination of biological, chemical and mechanical indicators as parameters.
This study is aimed at evaluating the different sterilization methods employed on HSG equipment and disposable HSG kits.
1.1. Statement of Problem
3 Most Radiographers do not know the methods of sterilization of HSG equipment.
1.2. Objectives of Study
1.3. Significance of Study
This research work,
1.4. Scope of Study
This study will be restricted to X-ray or radiology departments in Enugu Urban.
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