This study aimed at assessing the effects of Head Teachers’ Leadership Style on Teachers’ Job Performance in Selected Primary Schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. The study was based on path goal theory. The study employed the descriptive survey design. The study employed 6 head teachers and 88 primary teachers in the 6 primary schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to get 6 head teachers and 88 teachers were obtained through simple random sampling. Questionnaires, interviews and documentary reviews are the method used by for this study. The analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Quantitative data was entered into the computer for analysis using the software of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study shows that the democratic leadership style was a both dominant and that it enhanced teachers’ job performance. The researcher recommended that, school head teachers should avoid much uses of autocratic style in the leading of schools as it does not allow teachers to give off their best. Also adoption of leadership strategies by the head teachers such as participative style of leadership, creates conducive environment which would help to improve primary school teachers’ job performance. Based on the findings of the study a researcher concluded that, the proper utilization of the leadership behaviors were results to the high level of teachers’ job performance.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Problem
Leadership is considered as one of the key ingredients for the success of any organization. It is therefore, important for a leader to understand what good leadership entails. According to Sergon (2005), leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader. Mirkamal, (2005) identified different styles of leadership; autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Fan (2009) reveals that achievements in schools are dependent on four identifiable leadership styles namely; autocratic, democratic, transformational and laissez-faire.
Autocratic leadership style appears generally self-centered and allows minimum participation of the subordinates in decision making, the democratic style is rather people oriented and counts on the participatory contribution of the subordinates (Mgbodile, 2004). Autocratic leadership behaviours have prevailed in Mexico and Taiwan, while in South Korea and United States, the dominant leading style is democratic. According to Dickson, Hartog and Mitchelson (2003) only democratic leadership style had a direct and significant affiliation with performance in United States. Fan (2009) identifies that transformational leadership style pays particular attention to the subordinates needs for growth and achievement and thus leaders who use this style are proactive leaders. Laissez-faire leadership styles refer to the style which allows free contributions of ideas or opinions without interference by the leader.
Secondary schools all over the world, including Nigeria, are important institutions in the achievement of the educational policy of the state. As a formal organisation, it has a bureaucratic administrative structure with established rules and regulations, aimed at providing the needed opportunities for the education and development of the learners and staff of the schools, and usually under the leadership of the principal. In their views, Ochoyi and Danladi (2009) and Wilson (2016, p. 52) described education as a vital tool in the development of the learners, through the transmission of worthwhile values such as skills, knowledge and planned activities that can develop the learners’ potentials for the benefit of the society. Education, thus provides for the development of the citizens, and is achieved through the implementation of the necessary school curricula and education policy of the state. In Nigeria, the education policy anchors on five cardinal objectives, basically a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy; a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens FGN, (2004, p. 4). In addition, Olatunji (2015, p. 396), stated that Nigeria’s philosophy of education is a complex one that requires adequate administrative procedure to ensure its practical achievement in the state. The desirability of achieving of both the Nigerian education policy and philosophy of education requires effective leadership in all educational institutions in Nigeria, including the secondary schools. Secondary schools provide institutional resources for the secondary education level and needs effective leadership of the principal to ensure the achievement of its objectives.
Adwella (2014, p.1) saw leadership as the operational tool in influencing people to strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of the organisational goals, including secondary schools. Nworgu (1991), Omolayo (2000), and Aghenta (2001) explained leadership as a process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in an effort towards the attainment of the organisational goal. It involves the act of getting things done with the cooperation and assistance of other people. Leadership is therefore an important instrument in the initiation and implementation of the organisational policies, including educational policies and philosophy of the secondary schools in the State, and the leadership style and traits so applied by the leader influences the job performance of the staff in the organisation (Yahaya, Osman, Mohammed, Gibrilla, and Issah, 2014, p. 2).
Different leadership styles influence job satisfaction. For example, Fan (2009) studied principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job satisfaction in South Carolina and revealed that teachers preferred transformational leadership that includes them in decision making rather than be coerced into compliance by their principals. However apparent contradictions arose when teachers spoke highly of leaders characterized as having democratic leadership styles as well as some having authoritative leadership styles. Iqbal (2010) on the impact of principals’ job satisfaction of teachers the province of Punjab, Pakistan established that democratic leadership style was dominant over autocratic style. 18 per cent of school principals fall in autocratic leadership style and 82 per cent fall in democratic leadership style. The study further revealed that teachers working under a democratic style of leadership were more satisfied than teachers working under autocratic style of leadership.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Some head teachers’ seem to be autocratic in their leadership style (Adeyemi, 2010). Some perhaps tends to be democratic (Akerele, 2007). Some on the other hand seem to practice the laissez faire leadership style (Ige, 2001). These leadership styles tend to have some effect on the management of the school either positively of negatively.
Other studies have been on head teachers’ leadership styles with respect to performance in KCSE examination for example Iqbal (2010). Muchina (2009) studied the effects of head teachers’ leadership styles on motivation of secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Common observations in the school system shows that teachers in primary schools have been moving away from the teaching profession to other professions and others have had early retirement (Fan, 2009). Many reasons might have been responsible for this development. Among these reasons may be the perceived low level of teachers’ welfare and the conditions of service which seems not to be comparable with the conditions of service of their colleagues in the civil service.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the assessment of the effect of Head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in selected primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. The specific objectives of this study include the following:
- To find out the type of leadership style adopted by primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To determine the influence of head teachers’ democratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To establish the influence of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To examine the influence of head teachers’ laissez- faire leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To assess the influence of head teachers’ transformational leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To find the impact of head teachers’ leadership style on the rate of teachers’ turn over in primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA..
1.4 Research Questions
The relevant research questions related to this study include the following:
1. What is the type of leadership style adopted by primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
2. What is the influence of head teachers’ democratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
3. What is the influence of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
4. What is the influence of head teachers’ laissez- faire leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
5. What is the influence of head teachers’ transformational leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
1.5 Significance of the Study
A number of benefits are expected from this study. First, the findings of this study would help to improve head teachers and teachers working relationships as well as improving the teaching performance. Second, the study would provide information and insights useful not only to policy makers and practicing educational administrators, but also to teachers and other stakeholders in the Tanzanian educational settings. Third, the study would contribute to new knowledge and the availability of literature on educational management, leadership and administration. Fourth, the study findings would also contribute to the pool of knowledge on teachers’ job performance. Also it is vital for the present and future scholars in regard to an assessment of head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance. Lastly the study would also be a conditioning for the fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of a master’s degree in Educational administration
planning and policy studies of the Open University of Tanzania.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study was conducted in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. It could have been a good idea to conduct the study to cover all the LGAs in Ogun state. However, due to lack of funds, the study focused only Ado-Odo Ota LGA . Thus the study was focused on leadership styles only as the factor that influence teachers’ job performance through the area of communication, decision makes and delegation of duties between head teachers and teachers in the school setting.
1.7 Limitations and Delimitation of the Study Limitations of the Study
Even though the research has attained its objectives, there were some unpreventable limitations. First, while there are various models of leadership style, due to the limit of time, finance and material resources; this research was not incorporating all models to see teacher’ job performance. The investigation was run by focusing on the three leadership styles and teachers performance. Styles, which are prepared based on House (1968) path goal theory of leadership. In addition because of the limits mentioned above, this research was conducted on government primary school in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. Therefore, it was difficult to generalize the result for both government and private schools. Furthermore, the lack of similar research works on the issue investigated in the study area impedes the researcher from consulting more findings in the literature as well as in the discussion part. Despite of all those limitations, the researcher managed to collect relevant data from the study by educating them the purpose of the study as it was for academic purpose only.
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