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This study assessed time management in various activities at the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state. The objectives of the study were to examine the benefits of time management and the consequences of poor time management, to identify the factors associated with poor time management and strategies for achieving organizational goals, and to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and institutional variables on achieving overall organizational goals through time management in Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state. A questionnaire survey was adopted for the study; a structured Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ) was developed and administered to 50 hospital workers randomly selected from a population of 90 staffs in the hospital. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics. Findings indicated that 77% of the respondents interviewed had years of experience in excess of five years. In addition, time management allows for scheduling of work plans, dealing with interruption and categorizing tasks. However, poor time management leads to distractions from working on critical tasks, procrastination, disorganization and delay in information circulation. In addition, time management allows for planning daily targets, setting deadlines and organizing tasks. However, the respondents indicated steps adopted by the management of Federal Medical Center to mitigate consequences of poor time management. These are organizing time management seminars and reduce bureaucracy in all activities. The length of time (years) in service at Federal Medical Center significantly contributed to effective time management and achieving overall management objectives. Based on findings, the study recommends staff training on systematic time management, time management practices and principles. Time management tools such as; time log, schedule and Gantt chart should be put in place, this will help employees to manage their time effectively. The management should pronounce clear policies, rules and regulations for employees to save time.








1.1 Background of the Study

Time is the period in which processes and actions take place. (Healthier, 2005) says that time is a resource which is scarce and must be well managed or else you can’t manage anything.

Time management is the use of tools and activities which help an individual manage and strategize his time effectively (Healthier, 2005). (Hellsten, L. M. 2012).

Key elements to perfecting time management are, setting goals, delegation and decision making. (Hellsten, L. M. 2012). Effective organization of time, planning for the future, scheduling activities, writing to do lists and avoiding time waster activities are employed by time management (Hellsten, L. M. 2012).

In the bank sector, time has to be managed because with less time high quality services will be provided that means a bank will be in a position to retain patients and get more of them hence generate more income ( Hellsten, L. M. 2012). Efficiency and increasing productivity with little emphasis on effectiveness and life balance are emphasized by many of today’s time management books (Hellsten, L. M. 2012). The needs for time management is greater than ever, as the pace of life increases the perception of time changes although time management had its starts over a hundred years age. People concentrate on a single task at a time or a few simple tasks, this is because they attend more to rumors than work and become bored sometimes, (L.M. Prasad, 2007). Due to the greater concentration of single task compared to previous generations where it shows there was a freedom of working rather than today where most of the sectors or organizations are privatized (L.M. Prasad, 2007).

There is no agreed definition on performance. Performance of individual employees can only be accumulated by time spent on doing a specific task given, by describing all of their work-linked behaviors, which also represent their contribution. (L.M. Prasad, 2007) agreed that, the difference between employees’ competencies or capabilities and their actual effectiveness is the motivation or the willingness to present appropriate behaviors. (L.M. Prasad, 2007) also thinks that the various definitions and different understanding of performance management term is strictly connected with the above mentioned issues. The integration between the individual units and the whole enterprise led to another evolution of the above mentioned concept. The joint creation of plans, goal implementation and strategy achievement was the main source for the creation of shared vision of company’s success. People started to be measured in areas, which were the most essential for future evaluation. (Benson, J. and Brown, M, 2007) explained that, despite the terms’ evolution and various types of definitions and meanings, performance management can always be described in three points;

  1. Effective, which provides human resources with required knowledge and skills to achieve certain level of results
  2. Strategic, which refers to long-term strategic decisions and essential
  • Integrated, which connects and combines strategic, operational and financial information and

Therefore, time management needs to be taken into account that, the implementation of organizational performance needs to be aligned with time management that needs to be adapted and linked to company’s specific branch operational and strategic goals, current and future financial situation (Armstrong, M. 2006) .As long as above mentioned system is not capable of making a significant change, there is no point in implementing it. Armstrong, M. (2006) suggested that, according to the literature, management of time is the behaviors aimed at getting efficient utilization of time and therefore achieving set goals.

There are many barriers which could suppress the expected influence of the whole process. It is recommended to collect and analyze data and information linked with the implementation stages, because unsuitable system or a misuse of it can lead to consequences that are negative, such as employee’s de-motivation or even whole organization financial and functioning (Gardiner, M. 2007) problems. So, the basic objective of studying this was to gain knowledge about how to manage organization following the time management so as to optimize the organization achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In an organization there are number of resources which must be utilized such as people, money and materials which are all important. But there is one resource we all have in common which is time. Time has to be managed so as improve performance (Gardiner, M. 2007).

Performance in an organization revolves around efficiency (doing things right) and effectiveness (doing the right thing). As a manager, you need to know how to manage resources and employees. The company is faced with problems and challenges coming from not being efficient in its time management (Benson, J. and Brown, M, 2007). These are, poor job security and bad conditions of working, poor maintenance of human resource policies, not properly structuring the organization which needs to have new cultures that will improve its performance and make it profitable, lack of team building skills and not having Self-discipline. Therefore, the researcher intended to assess effective and efficiency of time management in enhancing the performance in Medical center.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To find out the awareness of effective time management among
  2. To examine the effectiveness of time management in service delivery in Medical centers.
  3. To know if time management can ensure timely completion of assigned duties in Medical centers.
  4. To describe challenges facing Medical Centers in implementing time


1.4 Research Questions

  1. Are the employees aware about effective time management?
  2. What is the effectiveness of time management in service delivery in Medical Centers?
  3. What are the effects of time management in ensuring timely completion of assigned duties?
  4. What are the challenges facing Medical Centers in implementing time management?


1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is aimed at creating awareness and assessing time management in improving organizational performance in Medical center, Therefore the study is expected to be of much value to a number of people as follows:

Members of organization including the human resource management will be informed on importance of time management in increasing performance Also, it will help decision makers to formulate different strategies which will help the implementation of time management.

The researchers will be benefited by identifying variable areas for further Research, and will be used as an additional reference to researchers on time management.

It will also add knowledge to the academic community and stimulate further research in the field Time management.

The research will be useful to the industry.


1.6 Scope of the Research

The scope of the study was limited to time management and how it affects performance of employees in Janlingo Medical Center. The study took approximately 3 months from May to July 2020 to complete the final copy. The population of the study was 90 people with a sample size of 50 people composed of employees and management.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was financed by the researcher herself and was conducted during the working days. It was therefore faced by both financial and time constraints. Financial constrains for accommodation purpose and field research studies. For the case of time, the study was conducted from morning where Jalingo Medical Center employees and management have a lot of things to do hence having a short time deal with my study. Due to those two constraints the study was done in a single public organization; it may therefore not yield comprehensive results for generalization of findings to other public organizations.


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