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Advertising has been identified as one of the factors that increase the likelihood of alcoholic beverage consumption especially among the youth (Alcohol Concern, 2013). Through the use of advertising execution techniques such as humour, celebrity endorsement and music, advertisers are able to embed images that resonate with vulnerable youths. In spite of the documented social and health repercussions of alcohol consumption and little knowledge of warning sign among adults, literature still show that the relationship between advertising warning signs and alcohol consumption is an understudied area. The study examined the attitude of Nigerian university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
The study adopted the survey research design. The target population of the study was 195,000 undergraduates from nine selected universities in South-West, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection process. Purposive sampling was used to select three states (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo), based on concentration of universities in the states. The universities in the selected states were stratified into Federal, State and Private. Three universities were purposively selected from each state (one from each stratum). Gay, Geoffrey and Peter’s formula was adopted to draw the sample size of 1,950 respondents who were proportionately distributed to the nine selected universities. A validated questionnaire was used as the instrument. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.735 to 0.945.Response rate was 95.7%. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses.
The findings revealed that there was significant relationship between students’ awareness of the 18+ warning sign and their attitudes towards consumption (r=0.242; p<0.05). There was significant positive relationship between students’ recognition of the 18+ warning sign and attitudes towards consumption (r=0.485; p<0.05). There was also a significant positive relationship between students’ perception of the credibility of the 18+ warning sign and attitudes towards consumption (r=0.664; p<0.05). It was found that the 18+ sign significantly influenced attitudes of the underage towards consumption (R2=0.494; p<0.05). Demographic variables significantly influenced the attitudes of undergraduates towards the 18+ warning sign (R2=0.017; p<0.05).
The study concluded that the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements discouraged undergraduates’ consumption of alcoholic beverages. The study recommended that advertisers, as sponsors of the promotional messages that promote alcohol consumption, should intensify the use of the 18+ warning sign and other warning labels for the purpose of being socially responsible. Also advertising relevant agencies in line with existing regulations should intensify efforts at monitoring the content of advertisements to ensure compliance with set standards.
Keywords:Alcohol advertising, Awareness, Perception, Alcohol consumption, Alcoholic beverage
Word Count: 411
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
List of Abbreviations x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.10 Operational Definition of Term 10
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Model 12
2.1.1 Marketing and the Marketing Mix 12
2.1.2 Advertising as a Promotional Tool 19
2.1.3 Alcohol and Alcoholism 23
2.1.4 The Nature of Youth as an Advertising Audience 31
2.1.5 Youth, Alcohol Marketing and Advertising 35
2.1.6 Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages Advertising 38
2.1.7 Alcohol Advertising Appeals and Youth Alcoholism 44
2.2 Theoretical Framework 46
2.2.1 The Social Learning Theory 46
2.2.2 Elaboration Likelihood Model 48
2.2.3 Cognitive Dissonance Theory 49
2.3 Conceptual Model of the Study 51
2.4 Empirical Framework 52
2.5 Summary of Literature 72
2.6 Gap in Literature 74
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 76
3.2 Populations 76
3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 77
3.4 Instrumentation 79
3.5 Validity of Research Instruments 79
3.6 Reliability of Research Instruments 80
3.7 Data Collection Procedure 80
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 81
3.9 Ethical Consideration 81
3.10 Post-Research Benefits 81
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS
AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Questionnaire Return Rate 83
4.1.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 84
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 97
4.3 Discussion of Findings 102
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction 108
5.1 Summary 108
5.2 Conclusion 112
5.3 Recommendations 113
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 114
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies 115
5.6 Limitation of the Study 116
LIST OF TABLES
3.1: Distribution of Study Population across the three Selected States and
Universities in South-West Nigeria 77
3.2: Distribution of sample Sizes among the Selected Universities 79
4.1 Questionnaire Return Rate 84
4.2 Distribution of Respondents by Gender 85
4.3 Distribution of Respondents by Age Group 85
4.4 Distribution of Respondents by Religion 86
4.5 Distribution of Respondents by Institution 87
4.6a Distribution of Respondents based on Alcohol Consumption 88
4.6b Distribution of Respondents of between 16 years and 18 years on Alcohol
4.7 Distribution of Respondents based on how they have been taking alcohol 90
4.8 Respondents’ Distribution by Awareness of the 18+ Sign 91
4.9 Respondents’ Distribution by Comprehension of the 18+ Sign 92
4.10 Respondents’ Distribution by Attitudes towards the 18+ Sign 93
4.11 Respondents’ Distribution by Effect of the 18+ Sign on Alcohol Consumption 94
4.12 Respondents’ Distribution by Attitude to Alcohol Consumption 95
4.13 Respondents’ Distribution by Perception of Credibility of the 18+ Sign 96
4.14 Correlation between awareness and attitude towards consumption 97
4.15 Correlation between respondents’ recognition and attitude towards consumption 98
4.16 Correlations respondents’ perception and attitude towards consumption 99
4.17a ANOVA of influence of the 18+ Sign on respondents’ alcohol beverages
4.17b Beta Coefficient and t- ratio for relative contribution of the independent
variablesto the dependent variable 100
4.18a Showing combined effect of independent variables on the dependent variable 101
4.18b Beta Coefficient and t- ratio for relative contribution of the 18+ sign to consumption101
LIST OF FIGURES
4.1 Graph showing distribution of respondents by gender 85
4.2 Pie Chart showing distribution of respondents by age group 86
4.3 Bar Chart showing distribution of respondents by Religion 87
4.4 Pie Chart showing distribution of respondents by Institution 88
4.5 Histogram showing distribution of respondents based on alcohol intake 89
4.6 Pie Chart showing years of alcohol in-take 91
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AANA- Australian Association of National Advertisers
ACU- Ajayi Crowther University
AERC- Alcohol Education and Research Council
AMA- Australian Medical Association
AMPHORA- Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research
APCON- Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria
ASA- Advertising Standard Authority
BU- Babcock University
CUL- Caleb University, Lagos
CAPA- Code for Advertising and Promotion of Alcohol
FUNAAB- Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta
LASU- Lagos State University
LAUTECH- Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
OOU- Olabisi Onabanjo University
PSA- Public Service Announcement
SPSS- Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
UI- University of Ibadan
UNILAG- University of Lagos
1.1 Background to the Study
Alcohol is perhaps the most commonly used drug among adolescents. It is a ubiquitous toxin and the excess consumption of it can harm almost any organ or system of the body (Anderson, 2007). Alcohol consumption carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences as a result of drunkenness; it is responsible for a range of social, health and economic harms which tend to be most pronounced among the youths (Australian Medical Association, 2012). The harms caused by excessive alcohol consumption as highlighted by Chikere and Mayowa (2011) includes worldwide disease of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, homicide, epilepsy, cirrhosis of the liver and so on.
Alcohol consumption in the past decades was basically used at ceremonies for entertainment, but in Nigeria today, the quantity and reason for consumption are rapidly changing (Chikere & Mayowa, 2011). The new trend of alcohol consumption among young people in Nigeria today contributes to Nigeria’s ranking among thirty countries with highest per capita consumption of alcohol globally (World Health Organization, 2004). The quantity of consumption by the Nigerian youths is what seem to result in an increased burden of alcohol-related problems such as addiction, poor academic performance, risky driving, health issues, to mention a few (Dumbili, 2013). Despite the effort to prevent underage alcohol consumption, it is still a persistent public health problem (Komro & Toomey, 2002).
The role of advertising as a possible stimulus to alcohol consumption and as a contributor to the abuse of alcohol has in recent years been controverted because advertising has been associated with underage purchase and consumption of alcohol (Nelson, 2001). Arens (2006) defined advertising as “a structured and composed non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products (good, services and ideas) by identified sponsors, through various media” (p. 7). Advertising creates the impression that, for a relatively small expenditure, young people can psychologically connect to positive fantasy places, lifestyle and personality characteristics it portrays. Advertising is one potential source of information for young people about the cost of alcohol and its benefits and information supplied by advertising can result in more positive expectancies about alcohol, which can change actual or intended consumption behavior (Saffer, 2002).
The effect of alcohol advertising can be found in the effect of alcohol consumption behavior of adolescents. Alcohol advertisements become attractive to young people in early adolescence, between the ages of ten (10) and fourteen (14). However, exposure to alcohol advertising increases the likelihood that an adolescent will start consuming alcohol and if such adolescent has already been consuming alcohol, there are chances that consumption will increase (Bouwmeester, n.d; Jones & Gordon, 2013). Alcohol advertisements are seen by youths on different communication media, but television advertising seems to be the most powerful means of marketing alcohol because children and youths spend more time watching television than using any other type of media. (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Radio advertising and product placement in television programmeming provide additional avenues for promoting alcoholic beverages (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Children have been found to identify alcohol advertisements as the ones they like most among the advertisements to which they have been exposed, and their liking of alcohol advertisements has been linked to alcohol consumption among the youth (Gunter, Hansen and Touri, 2008). This was further re-affirmed in the statement of Anderson (2007) which states thus:
The adolescent brain undergoes major development, which makes adolescents more vulnerable to impulsivity with greater sensitivity to pleasure and reward. Young people who already have problems related to alcohol are likely to be particularly vulnerable to alcohol advertising, with the vulnerability increasing with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising manipulates adolescents’ vulnerability by shaping their attitude, perceptions and particularly expectances about alcohol use, which then influence youth decisions to drink. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the enormous exposure to commercial communications, not only through traditional media, which are highly targeted to young people (p. 10).
Young people are at risk of alcohol related harm as a result of their body size and lack of experience with alcohol. The greater the amount of alcohol consumed during adolescence, the greater the risk as a young adult (Anderson, 2007). Majority of the advertisements of alcohol on television, newspapers and magazines and even on billboards have the 18+ sign and this implies that alcohol consumption is for people of eighteen (18) years and above. There are empirical evidences that there is a relationship between alcohol advertisements and positive attitude towards alcohol among young people, based on the appealing nature of alcohol advertisements to them. Saffer (2002) concludes that alcohol advertising affects knowledge, attitude and intentions to drink which is believed to affect drinking and there is therefore, a conclusion that there is positive link between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption.
Grube (2004) suggests that a large number of alcohol advertisements link drinking with valued personal attributes such as elegance, sociability, physical attractiveness and also with desirable outcomes which includes success, pleasure, relaxation, romance and adventure. Young people find alcohol advertisements with these attributes appealing and they are attracted to them. Due to the appeals, the content of advertisements is related to expectancies about the use of alcohol among the young ones. There is however, considerable evidence that some particular alcohol brands that appeal to the young ones are created and targeted at young people (Anderson, 2007). There is also evidence that cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students (Anderson, 2007). There are some elements that youths are attracted to, they are particularly drawn to elements of music, story, characters and humour (Anderson, 2007).
Varied responses can be exhibited by young people to alcohol advertising and these responses perhaps include awareness, perception, recognition and restraint. Attitude towards advertisements and perceptions of their messages can sometimes represent important variables which can mediate post-exposure influence of advertisements. Alcohol advertisements and the brands they promote may be noticed and recognized by young adults even long before they start drinking alcoholic beverages (Gunter et al., 2008). There is a concern that exposure of young people to alcohol advertisements could create favourable dispositions towards drinking and could also play a part in triggering early onset of alcohol consumption. There is however, a relationship between alcohol advertising and the onset or initiation of alcohol consumption among young adults. Alcohol advertising shapes the attitude, perceptions and expectancies around alcohol use which results in youth decisions to drink (Gunter et al., 2008; Chen, Grube Bersamin, Waiters & Keefe, 2005).
In Nigeria, advertising practice is guided by the statutory regulating body known as Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). The provisions in the advertising code of ethics cover electronic, print, outdoor media and even cinemas / viewing centers. This code of conduct is provided under Article 32-37 of the 5th code of the advertising practice. According to these articles, advertising of alcoholic beverages shall not be exposed in children’s religious and sport programmes, children, sportsmen / women shall not be used as models, it shall not employ religious or medical suggestions or connotations, shall not be sited within a radius of 200 metres from the nearest perimeter fence of any place of worship, hospitals, schools or motor parks (APCON, 2012).
Despite the efforts of APCON to regulate drinking among the youths and the underage, alcohol advertisements still seem to be appealing to the youths and even to be targeted at them. High levels of brand recognition among the youths and the underage illustrates the weakness of this current regulation because most of these young ones are exposed to alcohol advertising on the internet which could bring about difficulty in preventing underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Alcohol Concern, 2013). With the rate at which things are going which might later result in the total ban of alcohol advertising, alcohol industries, came up with an industry-based regulation which is the 18+ sign, in order to prevent underage drinking. The 18+ sign, implies that alcohol consumption is for people that are eighteen (18) years and above. In the light of this, this study seeks to investigate the attitude of university undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria to the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite regulations to protect the youth and underage from alcohol advertising, they are still regularly exposed to high level of alcohol advertising, young people are exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, radio, internet and in print media, whether they are targeted by advertisers or not (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009). The use of alcohol among the youths and the underage has been a major public health concern because drinking among these youths can result in a number of negative consequences such as alcohol addiction, accidents, poor academic performance, risky sex, injuries and even untimely death. It is has been observed that the earlier the age young people start to drink and the more they drink at a young age, the more they are likely to become addict and suffer alcohol related harm (Anderson, 2007).
Despite the fact that advertisements of alcoholic beverages on television, print media and even on billboards carry the 18+ sign which is supposed to serve as a deterrent to the underage, most of these young adults do not seem to be aware of the sign. Many young people start to drink at an earlier (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Another concern over alcohol advertising is the fact that advertising has frequently associated alcohol consumption with themes such as fun, friendship and humour. Much of these alcohol advertising goes beyond describing the specific qualities of the alcoholic beverage to creating a glamorous and pleasurable image that may be attractive and appealing to youths, even the underage. The university undergraduates in Nigeria today are perhaps dominated by the young adults and adolescents who should be educated on the adverse effect of alcohol consumption on health and academic performance. The attitude of these university undergraduates to the 18+ sign in these alcoholic beverages (Trophy, 33 larger beer, Golgberg, Stout, Heinekens and so on) advertisements were what constituted the focus of this study.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the attitude of university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. The specific objectives are to:
1.4 Research Questions
university undergraduates towards alcoholic beverage consumption?
university undergraduates towards alcoholic beverage consumption?
university undergraduates towards alcoholic beverage consumption?
the 18+ warning sign.
The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance
H01: There is no significant relationship between university undergraduates’ awareness of the 18+ warning sign and their attitude towards alcoholic beverages consumption.
H02: There is no significant relationship between university undergraduates’ recognition of the 18+ warning sign and their attitude towards alcoholic beverages consumption.
H03: There is no significant relationship between university undergraduates’ perception of the credibility of the 18+ warning sign and their attitude towards alcoholic beverages consumption.
H04: The use of the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements does not significantly influence alcohol beverages consumption among underage university undergraduates.
H05: Demographic variables do not significantly influence the attitude of undergraduates towards the 18+ warning sign.
1.6 Justification for the Study
This study is relevant because of the need to regulate or control exposure of young people, especially the underage to alcohol beverages advertisements. Quite a number of alcoholic beverage advertisements on electronic media, print media and also outdoor media have an 18+ sign which implies that alcohol consumption is for people from the age of eighteen (18) years and above. Alcohol consumption among the youth and underage however, has been a pervasive problem in Nigeria. Nigerian universities today are dominated by youths who belong to the underage group and who should abstain or be prevented from consuming alcohol. It has been observed that quite a number of these university undergraduates who take alcoholic beverages started doing so before the age of 18 years. Some of the these university undergraduates do not seem to recognize or even notice this 18+ sign on the alcoholic beverage advertisements, while some do not seem to know the meaning. This study was necessary because there is a need to understand the havoc alcohol has wrecked on the average youths in Nigeria, especially the underage. Therefore, this study sought to investigate attitude of university undergraduates in South-West, Nigeria to the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study served as a contribution to the body of knowledge about alcohol advertising and underage drinking. The study is relevant to the field of advertising because it would go a long way in assisting alcoholic beverage industries and advertisers whose advertisements appeal to and attract young adults and the underage; thereby discouraging or rather reducing underage drinking to the barest minimum. This study is also relevant to all countries all over the world and not to Nigeria alone, because underage drinking has been a persistent problem among youths and university undergraduates all over the world. The study is helpful young adults and the underage to realise the consequences of underage drinking which were discussed in this study so they could abstain from it. This study is also relevant to regulators as it would help them monitor advertisements so as to know advertisers who violate the APCON code of Advertising and Promotion guidelines.
This study is also relevant to parents so that they could monitor or caution their children’s exposure to alcohol advertising as most of these young ones do not even notice or recognize or even know the meaning of the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. It is also helpful to parents in making their children understand the consequences of underage drinking which involves a lot of harm to their body systems. It is also relevant to brewers because they are the producers of alcohol. This study is also relevant to the field of academics, it has allowed the researcher contribute to the body of knowledge about 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements which might not be noticed, recognized or even conspicuous to young adults who see the advertisements on different communication media. The study would also serve as a reference point to researchers writing on related topics.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study focused on attitude of undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. The study sought to examine the dispositions of university undergraduates in South-West, Nigeria to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. There are three categories of universities in South-West, Nigeria, namely: private, state and federal, which were the focus of this study and these categories of universities were chosen from three different states (Lagos, Oyo and Ogun states). Though, there are different alcoholic beverages which includes, beer, distilled spirits, alcoholic wine, alcoholic herbal drinks and so on, this study is limited to alcoholic beverages that are advertised. This study was conducted from July – December, 2016. The research focused on university undergraduates in South-West, Nigeria, from ages 16years-25years.
1.9 Operationalisation of Variables
The independent variable of this study is “18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements” (x), the dependent variable is “Attitude of university undergraduates” (Y), and the intervening variable is the university undergraduates’ demographic factors (z). The variables of this study are therefore operationalized thus:
Y = f(x)…………………..(1)
Attitude of undergraduates to consumption is a function of awareness of the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
Y = f (z)(x)…………………..(2)
Attitude of undergraduates to consumption is a function of recognition of the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
Where x = 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements
Y = Attitude of university undergraduates
Z = University Undergraduates demographic factors
Y = y1 + y2 + y3 + y4
y1 = University undergraduates’ awareness of the 18+ warning sign and
their consumption habit
y2 = University undergraduates’ recognition of the 18+ warning sign
and their consumption habit
y3 = University undergraduates’ perception of the credibility of the 18+ warning sign and their consumption habit
y4 = University undergraduates’ influence on underage consumption
due to the 18+ warning sign
z = z1 + z2 + z3 + z4
z1 = Undergraduates’ age range
z2 = Undergraduates’ religion
z3 = Undergraduates’ institution
z4 = Undergraduates’ gender
H01 = y1 = f(x) ……………………………. (i)
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of awareness of the 18+ warning sign
H02 = y2 = f(x) ……………………………. (ii)
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of recognition of the 18+ warning sign
H03 = y3 = f(x) ……………………………. (iii)
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of perception of the credibility of the 18+ warning sign
H04 = y4 = f(x)
University undergraduates’ influence on consumption is a function of the 18+ warning sign in alcohol advertising
H05 = y5 = f (z1)(x) ……………………………. a
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of undergraduates’ age range
y = f (z2)(x) ……………………………. b
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of undergraduates’ religion.
y = f (z3)(x) ……………………………. c
University undergraduates’ attitude towards consumption is a function of undergraduates’ institution = f (z4)(x) ……………………………. d
University undergraduates’ influence on underage consumption is a function of undergraduates’ gender and the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
amount that is eaten or drunk, while habit refers to something that has become part of someone. Consumption habit in this study refers to the frequency at which university undergraduates consume alcohol and the company of people with which they love to drink alcohol- whether in the company of friends or with their parents.
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