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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON BIOGAS GENERATION FROM KITCHEN WASTE
The Project File Details
- Name: BIOGAS GENERATION FROM KITCHEN WASTE
- Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
- Size: [731KB]
- Length:  Pages
Biogas was generated from kitchen waste. The waste was made up of leftover food items and vegetables. Slurry was made with the crushed items and water. The volume of biogas generated from the slurry, temperature and pH were measured daily. The volume increased from 50cm3on the 2nd day to 425 cm3 on the 16th day. it decreased to 200cm3 on the 23rd day. The range of the pH was 5.6 to 7.2. Temperature fluctuated between 25oC and 32oC. The highest volume of gas was generated at a temperature of 32oC.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The economic development of Nigeria depends to a large extent on the wheels of food security, power generation and transportation. A sustainable energy source is required to fuel our economic development.
With the fast depletion of non-renewable energy sources such as coal and petroleum, the commercial production of biogas and its utilization will definitely give a drive for the development of our country. Biogas is produced from organic wastes by concerned action of various groups of anaerobic bacteria through anaerobic decomposition. Anaerobic decomposition is a two‐stage process as specific bacteria fed on certain organic materials. In the first stage, acidic bacteria dismantle the complex organic molecules into peptides, glycerol, alcohol and the simpler sugars. When these compounds have been produced in sufficient quantities, a second type of bacteria starts to convert these simpler compounds into methane. These methane producing bacteria are particularly influenced by the ambient conditions, which can slow or halt the process completely. Globally, the reduction of green house gas emissions particularly CO2 has become more important. Currently much of the carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere is the result of anthropogenic activities from the use of the fossil fuel in the transportation and energy sectors. Significant emission reductions may be achieved in the energy sector by improving efficiency through the use of alternative fuels. Through the use of biogas plant we can save the CO2 emission in the atmosphere. (Ravi & Tiwari in 2013)
Anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste is achievable but different composition of food waste results in varying degrees of methane yields, thus the effects of mixing various types of food items. The product methane, can be used both in rural and urban areas.
Kitchen waste (food waste) is organic material having the high calorific value and nutritive value to microbes, that’s why efficiency of methane production can be increased by several orders of magnitude. It is a fact that in current practices of using low calorific inputs like cattle dung, distillery effluent, municipal solid waste (MSW) or sewage in biogas plants, really make methane generation highly inefficient. This system can be made extremely efficient using kitchen waste/food wastes. Its worthy of note that purified methane gas can be used as replacement to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- Inadequate management of wastes like uncontrolled dumping bears several adverse consequences: It not only leads to polluting surface and groundwater through leachate and further promotes the breeding of flies, mosquitoes, rats and other disease bearing vectors. Also, its emission of unpleasant odour and methane which is a major greenhouse gas contributes to global warming dump.
- Deforestation is a very big problem in developing countries like Nigeria, as most of the part depends on charcoal and fuel-wood for fuel supply which requires cutting of forest trees.
- Scarcity of petroleum and coal threatens the supply of fuel throughout Economy, also problem of their combustion leads to research in different corners to access new sources of energy, like renewable energy resources.
- The fact that most of our power generation and distribution stations thrive on non renewable sources of energy, it has led the Economics of Africa into incessant and epileptically developing Economy. As power is a bane for development of any economy.
- The devastating effect of petroleum exploration and gas flaring in the core southern states of Nigeria is pathetic especially for the people of that region.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of the study is to generate biogas from kitchen waste.
THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To collect biodegradable kitchen waste.
- Blending of the kitchen waste.
- Making slurry of the kitchen waste and water.
- Construction of a digester.
- Daily monitoring of gas generated.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
- Collection of kitchen waste from Holy family youth village and the university cafeteria (science village).
- Construction of digester and
- Daily monitoring of gas generation and reading of pH of slurry.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
- Savings of our foreign exchange used in the importations of refined petroleum and products.
- Reduction of the dependence on petroleum products in Nigeria and Africa. Biogas is pretty much a better substitute for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Hence, its potential can leverage most especially the people of Niger Delta region in Nigeria from more devastating effect of oil spillage and gas exploration.
- It encourages conservation of forestry and wide life for tourist attraction, also adding to the economic growth and development of the nations.
- It boost the gross domestic product (GDP) of economics through increased productivity of the labour market, as a relatively cheap source of energy or power is available for production and manufacturing activities.
- It creates job or employment opportunity for various degrees of people, if commercialized.
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