WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.

Project File Details


Download the complete History and International Relations project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled BOKOHARAMI NSURGECYANDNATI ONALSECURI TY ( 2002–2017) here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

3,000.00

Download the complete History and International Relations project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND NATIONAL SECURITY ( 2002–2017) here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND NATIONAL SECURITY ( 2002–2017)

The Project File Details

  • Name: BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND NATIONAL SECURITY ( 2002–2017)
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [810 KB]
  • Length: [86] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Abst r act
Thi sst udyexami nedBokoHar am i nsur gencyandnat i onalsecur i t y,20022017.The st udy was necessi t at ed on t he pr emi se t hatt er r or i sm has af f ect edl i vesal lovert hewor l dandhasr esul t edi nnegat i ngwor l dpeaceat anal ar mi ngr at e.Theobj ect i vesoft hest udywer et oexami newhet hert he i nci denceoft er r or i sm hasi mpact edonnat i onalsecur i t y;andt oascer t ai n t heef f ect soft er r or i sm on Ni ger i ansf or ei gn pol i cy.Secondar ydat awas used and t he Mar xi an pol i t i cal economy t heor y f or med a basi s of t heor et i calanal ysi s.Theexposef act o r esear ch desi gn wasadopt ed and dat awasanal yzedusi ngt hequant i t at i vedescr i pt i vemet hod.Thef i ndi ngs oft her esear chpr ovedt hatnonat i oncanguar ant eeabsol ut esecur i t yt oi t s ci t i zens wi t houtcol l abor at i on wi t h t he l ar ger i nt er nat i onalcommuni t y; t er r or i sm i sanactofvi ol enceandvi ol encei sacont i nuat i onofpol i t i csby ot hermeans.The st udyr ecommends a cont i nuous capaci t ybui l di ng f or i nt el l i gence and secur i t y oper at i ves and agenci es;and t he i ni t i at i on of count ert er r or i stmeasur est opr eventat t acksf r om t er r or i st

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Ti t l epage i
Cer t i f i cat i on i i
Appr ov al Page i i i
Dedi cat i on i v
Acknowl edgement v
Tabl eofCont ent s v i
Abst r act i x
CHAPTERONE–I NTRODUCTI ON
1. 1 Backgr oundoft heSt udy 1
1. 2 St at ementoft hePr obl em 5
1. 3 Obj ect i v eoft heSt udy 9
1. 4 Resear chQuest i ons 9
1. 5 Resear chHy pot hesi s 9
1. 6 Si gni f i canceoft heSt udy 10
1. 7 ScopeandLi mi t at i onoft heSt udy 10
CHAPTERTWO–REVI EWOFRELATEDLI TERATURE
2. 1 TheConceptofTer r or i sm 11
2. 2 ConceptofSecur i t y 12
2. 3 Conceptoff or ei gnpol i cy 13
8
2. 4 Ter r or i smi nAf r i ca 14
2. 5 Causesoft er r or i smi nNi ger i a 15
2. 6 Ther i seoft er r or i smi nNi ger i a19992015 17
2. 7 Ter r or i smandGl obal Secur i t y 18
2. 8 Gl obal Responsest oTer r or i sm 24
2. 9 I ndi cat or soff ai l st at eandt er r or i sm 26
2. 10Under st andi ngt er r or i smandBokoHar ami nsur gency 30
2. 11Ni ger i a’ sgl obal t er r or i smPr of i l e 34
2. 12Cont ext ual i zi ngt er r or i smandBokoHar ami nsur gency
i nNi ger i a 38
CHAPTERTHREE–THEORETI CALFRAMEWORK
3. 1 Theor et i cal Fr amewor k 48
3. 2 Resear chDesi gn 49
3. 3 Met hodofDat aCol l ect i on 50
3. 4 Met hodofDat aAnal y si s 51
CHAPTERFOUR–DATAPRESENTATI ONANDANALYSI S,
TESTI NGOFHYPOTHESI SANDRESULTS
OFTHESTUDY
4. 1 I mpl i cat i onsofTer r or i smf orGl obal Secur i t y 53
4. 2 Negat i v ei mpactofTer r or i smandGl obal onNi ger i an
For ei gnPol i cy 54
4. 3 Humani t ar i anconsequencesofBokoHar amI nsur gency 58
CHAPTERFI VE–SUMMARYOFFI NDI NGS, CONCLUSI ON
ANDRECOMMENDATI ONS

5. 1 Summar y 64
5. 2 Fi ndi ng 64
5. 3 Concl usi on 65
5. 4 Recommendat i ons 66
REFERENCES 68

CHAPTER ONE

I NTRODUCTI ON
1. 1 Backgr oundt ot heSt udy
The21stcent ur yhaswi t nessedunf or eseenev ent swhi chhav eal t er ed
t hecour seofhi st or y .Besi dest het echnol ogi caladv ancement s, t hebi ggest
changeundoubt edl yhasbeent heemer genceoft er r or i sm asoneoft he
bi ggestgl obalt hr eat s.Ter r or i sm hasbeeni nsi di ousl yaf f ect i ngl i v esal l
ov ert hewor l dandhasr esul t edi nspoi l i ngt hewor l dpeaceatanal ar mi ng
r at e.Mayi tbeasuperpowerl i keUni t edSt at esofAmer i caoradev el opi ng
count r yl i keI ndi a,t er r or i smcont i nuest ospr eadi t sr oot swi t hnoconcr et e
sol ut i on.I thasnotonl ydebi l i t at ednat i onalsecur i t ybuthasal sol ed
count r i esi nt oasi t uat i onofanar chy .
Ter r or i sm i samet hod,whi chcanbeusedbyanyper sonorgr oupand
f oranyki ndofmot i v e.Asaf or mofv i ol ence,t er r or i smt el l susl i t t l eabout
t hepeopl ewhoempl oyi t ,nordoest het act i ci t sel fexpl ai nwhyi ti sbei ng
used.Bef or eembar ki ngonamor edet ai l edanal y si sandpr oj ect i onof
11
t r ends,i ti st her ef or ewor t hr emember i ng t hatl umpi ng t oget herand
pr escr i bi ngst andar di zedsol ut i onsf orv ast l ydi f f er entv i ol entconf l i ct s
basedmer el yont act i calsi mi l ar i t y ,t hati s,t heuseof‘ t er r or i st i c’means
doesnotl eadt ov al i dpr edi ct i ons.AsBr i anJenki nsputi t ,t er r or i sm i s
mer el yt he‘ t hi ncr ustat opav er ydeeppi e’Jenki ns( 2005) ,andi tcannot
t her ef or ebeunder st oodwi t houtr ef er encet ot hespeci f i cpol i t i caland
soci et alcondi t i onsi nwhi chi toccur s.Anyat t emptt oder i v ewi der angi ng
i nsi ght saboutt hecausesandpossi bl esol ut i onsf orpar t i cul arv i ol ent
conf l i ct sbasedsol el yont hei r‘ t er r or i st i c’ mani f est at i onsmustf ai l .
Ter r or i sm andgl obalsecur i t yhav ebecomesi gni f i cantcont ent i oni n
shapi ngf or ei gnpol i cyofnat i onsacr osst hegl obe.Recentl i t er at ur eshav e
r ev eal edt hatsuchi ssuesas,soci al ,economi c,pol i t i calandt echnol ogi cal
f act or st hatr ev ol v ear oundt hehubofgl obalsecur i t ymat t er shav ebeen
ser i ousl yunder mi nedbycancer ousact soft er r or i sm.Thi si sbecause
t er r or i smi nwhi chev erf or m, posesanal ar mi ngki ndofv i ol enceandt hr eat
i nt hecont empor ar ywor l d,whi chconst i t ut esgr eathi ndr ancet of r eef l ow
r el at i onshi pt hatexi stamongstnat i ons.I nNi ger i af ori nst ance,t hecause
oft er r or i sm r angesf r om r el i gi ousext r emi sm,per cei v edoppr essi onand
nat i onal i stsepar at i storet hni cconsi der at i onst hatnodoubthav egr eat l y
i mpact edont heNi ger i anf or ei gnpol i cy .
12
Apar tf r om t he chal l engesofpov er t y ,sect ar i an,economi cand
pol i t i calcr i ses,andNi gerDel t aMi l i t ancy ,Ni ger i ai scur r ent l yf aci nga
deeperandpr of oundchal l engeoft er r or i sm, especi al l yi nt heNor t hEast er n
r egi onoft hecount r y .I nt hepastt woy ear s,wehav ewi t nessedt he
v ul ner abi l i t yoft heNi ger i anst at et ot er r or ,cr i mi nal i t yandi nst abi l i t y .The
l i stoft hesedi shear t eni ngphenomenai ncl udesbuti snotl i mi t edt ot he
bombi ngofsev er alChur ches,Mosques,Pol i ceSt at i ons,School sand
Pr i sonsi nBauchi ,Bor nu,YobeandAdamawast at es.Ot herpar t soft he
count r ywer enotspar ed,ast hesect bombi ngact i v i t i eswer ewi t nessedi n
t heFeder alcapi t alt er r i t or y ,Abuj a,Pl at eau,KadunaandKanost at es.The
bombi ngoft heUni t edNat i onsof f i cei nAbuj ai sper hapswhatt he
i nsur gent susedt ogai ngl obalr ecogni t i on;ast heyar enowl i st edamongst
t er r or i stor gani zat i onsbyt heUni t edSt at esandi t sal l i es,( f ormor edet ai l s
seeTheEconomi st , Sept ember3, 2011) .
Av ai l abl est at i st i csont henumberofdeat hsandpr oper t yl ostt o
BokoHar am i nsur gencybet ween2002and2013t osayt hel easti shi ghl y
cont r ov er si al .Accor di ngt ot heEconomi st ,Sept ember3,2011ov er10, 000
peopl e( i ncl udi ngwomenandchi l dr en)hav ebeenki l l edandpr oper t ywor t h
ov er100mi l l i ondol l ar shav ebeendest r oy eddur i ngt heper i odunder
di scussi on( cul l edf r om i nt er v i ew ofv i ct i msofBokoHar am at t acksi n
13
Abuj a,Nor t hCent r al ,Nor t hEastandNor t hWestr egi onsoft hecount r y ) .
Howev er ,of f i ci alr epor t sputt hedeat ht ol lat8, 000pl usandpr oper t y
dest r oy edat40mi l l i ondol l ar s( cul l edf r om t hei nt er v i ewofgov er nment
of f i ci al si nAbuj a, Yobe, Kaduna, Pl at eauandAdamawast at es) .
Gov er nment ’ sr esponset ot hev i ci ousat t acksofBokoHar am has
beenadi v er semi xofhopeandt r epi dat i on.Hopel i esi nt hef actt hata
st at eofemer gencyhasbeendecl ar edi n( AdamawaSt at e, Bor noSt at eand
YobeSt at es)i nhabi t edbyt hei nsur gentgr oup.Apar tf r om t hateacht i me
t hePol i ceandot hersecur i t yor gani zat i onsr esponsi bl ef ori nt er nalsecur i t y
seem t obeov er whel medbyt hei nsur gent s,t hear myi susual l ybr oughti n
t o f or ce t hem t o r et r eat .Tr epi dat i on ar i ses f r om t he abi l i t yoft he
i nsur gent st or egr oupandst r i keev enwi t ht hei mposedst at eofemer gency .
Thecount r y ’ sv ul ner abi l i t yt oi ncessantat t acksf r om ar medi nsur gent s
posesagr eatsecur i t ychal l enge.Accor di ngt ot heMi ni st erofi nf or mat i on,
Labar anMaku,t hecount r yspends27%ofi t sbudgetoni nt er nalsecur i t y
al one.Thesear er esour cest hatcoul dhav ebeenusedt or ehabi l i t at et he
count r y ’ sdepl or abl ei nf r ast r uct ur e( Rev i ewof2013byChannel sTel ev i si on) .
Fol l owi ngt hedecl ar at i onofst at eofemer gencyi nAdamawa,Bor no
andYobest at es,gov er nmentt r oopshav el aunchedsust ai nedof f ensi v e
agai nstt hei nsur gentgr oup,butt hi shasnoty i el dedt hedesi r edr esul t s.
14
Mostr ecent l y , t heAi rf or cebaseandAr myposti nMai dugur i wer eat t acked
byBokoHar ami nsur gent s.Accor di ngt oanof f i ci alr epor t , “ t wohel i copt er s
andt hr eeout ofser v i cepl aneswer edest r oy ed” .“ Twomi l i t ar yper sonnel
wer ei nj ur edand24mi l i t ant ski l l ed” .Howev er ,wi t nessesaccountcul l ed
f r om soci almedi acl ai medt hatov er100per sons,i ncl udi ngci v i l i answer e
ki l l ed.
I nr esponset ot heat t ack, t heGov er nmenti mposeda24hourcur f ewi n
t het ownofYobest at es.Thatt hei nsur gentgr oupi sabl et ol aunchat t acks
onmi l i t ar yi nst al l at i onsandot herpubl i ci nst i t ut i onsev enwhent hest at eof
emer gencyi sst i l li npl ace,r ai sesquest i onsaboutt heef f ect i v enessoft he
gov er nment ’ scount er of f ensi v epol i cy .Thi si swhathasi nst i gat edt hi s
i nv est i gat i on.I ti si nt hel i ghtoft heabov e,t hatt hi sst udyat t empt st o
i nv est i gat et er r or i sm andi t si mpactont he21 stcent ur yacasest udyof
BokoHar ami nsur gencyi nNi ger i a.
1. 2St at ementofPr obl em
Ter r or i sm, ar guabl y , i st hebi ggestt hr eatt ogl obalpeaceandst abi l i t y
i n t he cont empor ar yt i mes.Si nce t he dawn oft hi s mi l l enni um,t he
i nci denceoft het er r or i sm hasbeenonast eadyr i sewor l dwi de.Hi t her t o,
t er r or i sm wasmor eorl essanat i onalorr egi onalaf f ai r .I thasbeen
obser v edt hatpar toft hedi f f i cul t yi nconst r uct i ngauni v er sal l yaccept ed
15
def i ni t i onoft er r or i sm i saconsequenceoft heexi st enceofor gani zat i ons
andl eader st hatwer ef or mal l ybr andedast er r or i stbutev ent ual l yev ol v ed
i nt oaccept abl el eader sofgov er nment s.Thi si st hecasewi t hsome
l i ber at i onmov ement st hatf oughtcol oni al i smori sst i l lf i ght i ngoppr essi v e
r egi meswi t hi nt hei rowncount r i esasal astr esor t .Anexampl eoft hi si s
JomoKeny at t a’ sMauMauandNel sonMandel a’ sAf r i caNat i onal Congr ess.
I nt er est i ngl y ,Mandel a( Af r i ca’ sFor emostNat i onal i stLeader )wr ot ei nhi s
aut obi ogr aphyt hat“ 50y ear sofnonv i ol encebr oughthi speopl enot hi ng,
butmor er epr essi v el egi sl at i onandf ewerr i ght s”Mandel a( 1994) .
The Uni t ed St at es Depar t mentofDef ense def i ned t er r or i sm as t he
cal cul at eduseofunl awf ulv i ol enceort hr eatofunl awf ulv i ol encet o
i ncul cat ef eari nt endedt ocoer ceort oi nt i mi dat eei t herci t i zens,soci et i es,
orev ent hegov er nmenti nt hepur sui tofgoal st hatar egener al l ypol i t i cal ,
r el i gi ousori deol ogi cal .
Bet hatasi tmay ,whatwedi scov er edf r om t heabov edef i ni t i onand
i nt er pr et at i onoft er r or i sm ar et hr eekeyel ement st hatappeari nmost
def i ni t i ons.Theyar e( 1)av i ol encemeans,( 2)ai medatt r i gger i ngpol i t i cal
change, ( 3)byaf f ect i ngal ar geraudi encet hani t si mmedi at et ar get .
I nt er nat i onalt er r or i sm,whi chi st er r or i sm t hatt r anscendsnat i onal
bor der s, i st her ef or ebot hanact i onandr eact i ont or epr essi on, desper at i on
16
andhopel esssi t uat i ons.Theact i onsandr eact i onst akeonpol i t i cal ,
economi c,soci al ,i deol ogi cal ,psy chol ogi cal ,emot i onalandr el i gi ousf er v or
( Mukway a2004) .Ter r or i sm i st her ef or eapol i t i cal l y ,economi cal l yand
r el i gi ousl y mot i v at ed v i ol ence di r ect ed agai nstnoncombat ant s and
desi gnedt oi nst i l lf eari nat ar getaudi ence.I ti sanactt hati nf l uencesan
audi encebey ondt hei mmedi at ev i ct i m.Ter r or i sm aswepr ev i ousl ysai di s
notanew phenomenon;i ti sdeepl yembeddedi nhi st or y .Apeepi nt o
hi st or yr ecor dst hat ,t er r or i smhasbeenoneoft hest ar kestexpr essi onsof
r ej ect i onofaut hor i t y .Ter r or i sm eat sawayt hesoci opol i t i calf abr i cof
manyst at es,under mi nesdemocr acy ,pr ov i desar at i onalf oragov er nment
t odel aydemocr at i cr ef or msandcani ncr easet ensi onamongst at es.The
r esul ti sof t eni mpr essi ont hatt hewor l di si nast at eofchaos,and
i nt er nat i onal or derandaut hor i t yar ecol l apsi ng( Vi ot t i &Kauppi , 2009) .
Ter r or i sm hasbeenanol dscour get ohumanki ndf r om t i mepast ,
andf ort hepastt hr eedecades,t er r or i stact i v i t i esi nt hewor l dhav e
i ncr easedt oanal ar mi ngr at e.Fori nst ance,si ncet he1970s,i nt er nat i onal
t er r or i sm sponsor edbyst at esandnonst at eact or s,hasev ol v edi nt oan
i nsi di oust r endt hatof t enhur tci v i l i anpopul at i ons.Of t enusedbyt he
r el at i v el ypower l ess agai nstt he power f ul ,t er r or i st s oper at e basi cal l y
17
t hr oughsur pr i se( Mi ngst , 1999) .
Fr omt hebombi ngoft heembassi esoft heUni t edSt at esofAmer i ca
i nKeny aandTanzani ai n1988,t ot heSept ember11,2001wor l dt r ade
cent r ebombi ngsi nNewYor k, t heMumbai at t acksi nI ndi a, t heki l l i ngoft he
Amer i canAmbassadori nLi by aandt heBokoHar amat t acksi nNi ger i a, t he
st or yr emai nst hesame.Ter r or i stat t ackshav econt i nuedt ocausel ossof
l i v esandpr oper t y .Accor di ngt oKegl ey( 2007) , t er r or i smposesanal ar mi ng
ki ndofcont empor ar yv i ol ence.
Ther ear edi f f er entmechani smsandgl obalpol i ci escur r ent l yi nuse
f orf i ght i ng t er r or i sm.These r anges f r om peacef uland di pl omat i c
negot i at i ons, maki ngsecr etconcessi ons, paci f i cat i on, t heuseofeconomi c
sanct i onsanduseofmi l i t ar yf or cei nsomecases.Asar esul toft he
gr owi ng sophi st i cat i on of t er r or i st net wor ks and t he hav oc such
cl andest i negr oupsposet osoci et y , t heuseofmi l i t ar yf or cei sbecomi nga
pr ef er r edal t er nat i v eappr oachi nt hest r uggl eagai nstt er r or i sm.Thi sof
cour sehascont i nuedt oel i ci tr esponsesandcr i t i ci smsf r om pol i cyand
l egalanal y st s.Mostofsuchcr i t i ci smsmaker ef er encet ot hepr osecut i on
ofwhati scur r ent l yt er medast he“ waront er r or ”asexempl i f i edi nI r aqand
Af ghani st an.Thei nv asi onofI r aq,whi chl edt ot hedeat hofPr esi dent
18
SaddamHussei n, andt hef i ghtagai nstt heTal i bani nAf ghani st anhav el ed
t ot hedeat hofmanycombat ant sandi nnocentci v i l i ans,coupl edwi t ht he
dest r uct i onofpr oper t i eswor t hbi l l i onsofdol l ar s.
Wher ei nf or mat i ongapexi st sori spoor l yhandl ed,l i ket heI r aq’ s
chemi calweapons det ect i on bl under ,mi l i t ar yoper at i on mayl ead t o
col l at er aldamagest hatcoul di mpi ngeoni nt er nat i onall aw.Justf ewy ear s
ago,t er r or i sm seemedt ober est r i ct edt oaf ewi sol at edpl aces,suchas
Nor t her nI r el and, t heBasqueCount r yi nNor t her nSpai n, andsomear easof
t heMi ddl eEast .Now -especi al l ysi nceSept ember11,2001,wi t ht he
dest r uct i onoft heTwi nTower si nNew Yor k-wor l dwi dephenomenon
( June, 2006: 4) .
I ndeed,t hewor l dwi demani f est at i onoft er r or i smhasbeenev i denti n
Af r i ca,butal so i n Ni ger i a.Wi t h par t i cul arr ef er ence t o Ni ger i a,t he
phenomenonhasf oundex pr essi oni nt heemer genceofBokoHar am
i nsur gency( 2001dat e) .Si ncei t sadv ent ,t hesect ar i ani nsur gencyhas
wr eckedi mmensehav oci nt hecount r y , especi al l yby“ usi ngexpl osi v esand
f i r ear mswi t hgr uesome,f at al ”consequences( AwakeJune,2006: 6) .To
addr ess t hi s,t he st udy at t empt s t o i nv est i gat e Ter r or i sm and i t s
i mpl i cat i onongl obal secur i t yi n21stcent ur y .
19
1. 3Obj ect i v esoft heSt udy
The br oad obj ect i v e oft he st udyi s t o exami ne Boko Har am
i nsur gency and nat i onalsecur i t y ,20022017.Howev er ,t he speci f i c
obj ect i v esar e:
1.Toexami newhet hert hei nci denceoft er r or i smhasi mpact edonnat i onal
secur i t y .
2.Toascer t ai nt heef f ect soft er r or i smonNi ger i ansf or ei gnpol i cy .
3.Toev al uat et hehumani t ar i anconsequencesofBokoHar amI nsur gency
1. 4Resear chQuest i ons
1. Doest hei nci denceof t er r or i smi mpactonnat i onal secur i t y ?
2. Whatef f ect sdoest er r or i smposeonNi ger i anf or ei gnpol i cy ?
3. Whatar et hehumani t ar i anconsequencesofBokoHar ami nsur gency
i nNi ger i a?
1. 5Resear chHy pot heses
Thef ol l owi ng hy pot hesesar est at ed t o t ackl et heobj ect i v esoft he
r esear ch
20
1.Ter r or i smhasi mpact ednegat i v el yonnat i onal secur i t y .
2.Ter r or i smhasnegat edt heef f ect i v enessofNi ger i anf or ei gnpol i cy .
3.BokoHar amI nsur gencyt r i gger shumani t ar i anconsequences.
1. 6Si gni f i canceoft heSt udy
Thi sst udyhasbot ht heor et i calandpr act i calsi gni f i cance.Thet heor et i cal
si gni f i cancei st hati twi l lf i l lt hegapi nknowl edgeaswel lasaddt o
knowl edgeofv ar i ousschol ar sandr esear cher si nt hef i el dofpol i t i cal
sci ence, economi cs, soci ol ogy , hi st or yet c.
Thepr act i calsi gni f i canceoft hi sst udyi sbasi cal l yt oassi stt hesoci et yand
ai dpol i cymaker si npr ov i di ngmeans,st r at egi esandmeasur esoft ackl i ng
andhandl i ngt het er r or i stact i v i t i es.
1. 7Li mi t at i onsoft heSt udy
Theconst r ai nt sencount er eddur i ngt hi spr oj ectr esear chwer et he
combi ni ngofmycour sewor kaswel laswr i t i ngt hi sr esear chatt hesame.
Theper i odoft i megi v enf ort her esear chwasnotenoughf orapr oper
r esear chpur pose.Iwasunabl et oaccesssomegov er nmentof f i cesand
r est r i ct edf r om accessi ngsomej our nal sandf i l es.Fi nanci alunav ai l abi l i t y
equal l yhi nder edt hequal i t yoft hi sst udy .Howev er , despi t et heconst r ai nt s,
t her esear cherwasabl et ocar r youtt hi sst udyt oconcl usi on.

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.