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NWANKWO ONYEKACHI OKWUN

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Download the complete Biochemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled CARDIO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON ALBINO WISTER RAT  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON CARDIO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON ALBINO WISTER RAT

The Project File Details

  • Name: CARDIO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON ALBINO WISTER RAT
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [645 KB]
  • Length: [61] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the cardio protactive effect of N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem on albino wister rat. Rats used in this study were grouped into four and each group was fed differentely. Rats in group one, three, and four wre fed with the aid of a syringe without needle with 6ml of the lipoprotein food mixture containing 3.6g of the cow’s brain twice a day for seven days. Rats on group two was fed with only grower’s mash and water for seven days; rats in group three was later administered orally 2ml of dissolved vasoprin drug once in a day for 3 days. Rats in group four were also administered orally 0.5ml of the liquid drug extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem once a day for 3 days. During these three (3) days, the rats were given grower’s mash and water. After the feeding period, the rate fed with the cow’s brain showed a significant increases in the activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), Aspartatatranseaminase (AST), Alaninetransminase (ALT), and lactatedehydrogenase. This study shows that N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem posses cardio protective effect on albino wister rats than the known drug (vasoprin) if only one can increase the dosage of the extract for a period of time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………..i
Approval page…………………………………………………………..ii
Dedication………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………………v
List of tables and figures………………………………………………..vi
Table of Content…………………………………………………………ix
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………..….……..1
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review………………………………………………..………..4
2.0. The heart……………………………………………………………..4
2.0.1. Cardiovascular disorder………………………………..…….…….6
2.0.2 Diseases Associated with Cardiovascular………………..…….…..7
2.0.3 Some of the risk factor for cardiovascular disorder………….……..9
2.1. Causes of cardiovascular disorder……………………………….…..10
2.1.1 Symptoms of cardiovascular disorder…………………………..…..14
2.2 Pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular disorder…………..……16
2.3 Medicinal plant…………………………………………………….….17
2.4 Description of Desmodium Velutinum…………………………………18
2.4.1 Taxonomy of Desmodium Velutium………………………………….19
2.4.2 Uses of Desmodium Velutium…………………………………………20
2.5 Lipoprotein Metabolism in the heart……………………………..……21
2.5.1 Classifications of lipoprotein…………………………………………22
2.5.2 Danger of high cholesterol level…………………………………….24
2.6 Phytochemicals analysis……………………………………………….25
2.7 Heart Marker……………………………………………………………26
2.7.1 Types of cardiac Marker……………………………………….……26
CHAPTER THREE
3.0Material and Methods…………………………………………..………31
3.1Identification and extraction of plant material…………………………33
3.2Hot continuous percolation method…………………………………….34
3.3Phytochemical analysis…………………………………………………34
3.4 Experimental Animal model…………………………………………………37
3.5Collection of blood sample…………………………………….……….38
3.6Enzyme profile Analysis…………………………………………………..39
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results …………………………………………………………………43
4.1Quantitative Analysis…………………………………………………..43
4.2Qualitative Phytochemical…………………………………………..44
4.3Heart Marker Enzymes of Rats Fed With Various Sample………….44
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0Discussion……………………………………………………………46
5.1Conclusion……………………………………………………………49
References……………….………………………………

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The heart is a hollow muscular, cone-shaped organ, lying between the
lungs in a block of tissue called the mediastinum (Khader, 2004). The heart
begins beating some few weeks following conception and beats throughout
life (Khader, 2004). It is also the strongest muscle in the human body and
functions to maintain a constant circulation of blood throughout the body, it
also acts as a pump and its action is composed of a series of events known as
the cardiac cycle. The heart is composes of three layers of tissue which are;
the pericardium, the myocardium and the Endocardium. The heart acts as a
pump which drives blood into and through the arteries, but the right and the
left side of the heart functions separately from one another some of the
diseases associated with the cardiovascular system includes coronary heart
diseases (CHD) which is the most common of heart diseases and it occurs
when the arteries supplying blood to the heart narrow or harden from the
build-up of plaque (Gina, 1996.),Ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular
disease( CeVD),peripheral vascular disease, Heart Failure etc and some of
the pharmacological treatment includes Angiotesin commonly prescribes
includes Benazepril, Captopril, Moexipril, Beta Blockers which includes,
Acebutolol, Betaxolol,etc.
The heart marker enzymes includes creatine kinasse(CK-MB)which is
the enzyme used as the definitive serum marker for the diagnosis or
exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (Andreas,2009).
Troponin 1 Rapid test which is a lateral flow chromatographic
immunoassay for the qualitative detection of cardiac Troponin
1(CTn1)and its complex in human serum or plasma at the level equal or
higher than 1ng/ml. Myoglobin which is also designed for qualitative
determination of myoglobin in human whole blood serum or plasma as
an aid in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and myoglobin is
also a low molecular weight cytoplasm protein which is released into the
blood stream when muscle cells are damaged and this protein is released
into the blood stream more rapidly than any other myocardial marker
and elevated levels can be detected as early as one (1) hour after the
onset of AMI(Penttila,2002). Demodium velutinum has been suggested
to have some therapeutic effect in the treatment of cardiovascular
disorder and in the reducing of high cholesterol content in the body.
Demodium Velutinum is one of the few shrubs species that has been
identified as a well adapted to acid tropical soil and a good nutritive
value(Schultze-Kraft, 2002).Every culture has relied on the variety of
natural medicines found in healing plants for the therapeutic properties
(Armstrong,2004).Researchers find that food and their individual
constituents perform similar fashion to modern drugs and sometimes
better without the dreaded side effect. The leaves and young stems are
rich in crude protein and mineral elements and can provide higher levels
of some nutrient (Bakker, 1994). Natural plants have been valuable
sources of mineral agent with proven potential of treating infectious
diseases and with lesser side effects compared to the synthetic drug
agents(Guyton, 2002).Hence potentially useful drugs can often be
recognized from their relative importance and uses in folk medicine.
Extract of Desmodium velutinum stem are used traditionally in some
diseases condition particularly headache and may be a source of a
pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches and
pain(Anowi,2012). This work aimed at investigating any
hypocholesterolemic activity in the N-hexane extract of Desmodium
Velutinum stem.

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