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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

JOHNPAUL IZUCHUKWU OFFOR

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: CHARACTERIZATION OF PATIENTS WITH PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE IN NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA: INFLUENCE OF LIFESTYLE, WEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1.50 MB]
  • Length: [67] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer disease is a disorder in the gastrointestinal tract. It is caused by an increase in stomach acid. There are only a few studies on peptic ulcer disease in Africa. This study was conducted to characterize the lifestyle, wealth, and environmental factors of peptic ulcer patients in the Northeastern Nigeria. The lifestyle factors that were examined were cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. A targeted sampling method was used to sample 52 PUD (n=52) patients at Federal Medical Center, Yola. I used mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative techniques) approaches for data collection. Structured questionnaires were administered to PUD patients, and questions on the lifestyle, wealth, and environmental factors of typical PUD patients were asked.
The result showed that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are not characteristics of typical PUD patients. More than 70% of the subjects stated they neither smoked cigarettes nor drank alcohol. Based on the assessment of participants’ income status, most were in the lower sector. The result indicated that the major
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characteristic of PUD patients in North Eastern Nigeria is low wealth. The age range of my respondents was 10 to 50 years with an average age of 32 years and a standard deviation of 10.67. Gender was also found to be a characteristic of PUD patients because females had more PUD than males.
The results from this research clearly demonstrate that gender and income status are major characteristics of PUD. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking may be among the characteristics of PUD patients in northern Nigeria. The void in the literature on PUD indicates that sponsored research is vital by International Nongovernmental agencies and governments in Africa.
Key words: peptic ulcer disease, epidemiology, prevalence, diagnosed patients, wealth, alcohol

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………………………i
CERTIFICATION PAGE …………………………………………………………………………… ii
APPROVAL PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………. iii
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………… ix
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………… xii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………….. xiv
CHAPTER 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Overview of Peptic Ulcer ……………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Aetiology of Peptic Ulcer………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.3 Signs and Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease…………………………………………. 4
1.4 Factors that Influence Development of Peptic Ulcer ……………………………… 5
1.5 Lifestyle Practices and Peptic Ulcer Disease ………………………………………….. 8
1.6 Aims: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
1.7 Research Question: …………………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.8 Null Hypothesis (H0): …………………………………………………………………………. 12
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1.9 Hypothesis (H1): …………………………………………………………………………………. 12
1.91 Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
CHAPTER 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS ……………………………………………………………. 13
2.1 The Study Area ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13
2.2 Data Collection and Analysis ………………………………………………………………. 17
CHAPTER 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
3.0 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.1 Demographic Information ………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.2 Wealth ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
3.3 Environmental Factors ………………………………………………………………………. 24
3.4 Lifestyles ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
CHAPTER 4 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
4.0 DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
4.1 Limitations of Study …………………………………………………………………………… 35
4.2 Challenges …………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
4.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………… 36
CHAPTER 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
5.0 CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………………… 38
APPENDIX I ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Anatomy of the Stomach ………………………………………………………………………….. 39

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of Peptic Ulcer
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a gastrointestinal disorder that occurs as a result of developing a hole or sore within the lining of stomach, or duodenum, which forms the first part of the ileum (small intestine) (Lin et al., 2015). This is caused by high increase in the gastric acid found in the stomach. PUD poses a serious medical problem to humans, and it affects millions of people in their everyday lives. It increases the morbidity and mortality rates throughout the world’s population (Siddique, 2014). For example, approximately 4 million people have peptic ulcer disease in the United States, and about 350,000 new cases of PUD are diagnosed each year (Siddique, 2014). Peptic ulcer disease has been identified as the most common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract.
The incidence of this disease is constantly increasing in developing countries, while it has decreased in developed countries (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012). PUD has continued to be a serious socio-medical challenge in the world (Konturek et al., 2003). The reasons behind the decrease of peptic ulcer incidence in developed countries have been attributed to the early detection and treatment of the disease (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012). Other factors that have led to the decline in the PUD in developed countries include increase in hygiene and sanitation in the food services sector; as well as increase in health awareness in developed countries. However, the reasons for the increase in PUD among developing countries are not yet clear. PUD poses life-threatening problems,
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such as ulcer perforations and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tracts (Konturek et al., 2003).
In the last decades of the 20th Century, the morbidity and mortality rates of peptic ulcer disease were very high worldwide, but remarkable developments in the field of epidemiology reduced the prevalence and the incidence of peptic ulcer in the world’s population (Malfertheiner, Chan, & McColl, 2009). These epidemiological developments, including tracking of diseases and outbreaks, are used to determine the mode of transmission of diseases. The development in epidemiology also determines whether a disease is zoonotic, chronic, or pathogenic (Malfertheiner et al., 2009). The epidemiological development further involves the identification of health indicators, determinants of diseases, and demographic information, which are quantifiable evidence used by epidemiologists and other health researchers in describing the health situation of a particular population (World Health Organization, 2000).
1.2 Aetiology of Peptic Ulcer
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) is among the major gastrointestinal tract disorders and is partially caused by the increase in secretion of gastric acid. It occurs in the stomach and duodenum (for the anatomy of both structures, see Appendices I & II). The other contributing factors of peptic ulcer development include cigarette smoking (Ali, Ullah, Akhtar, Ali Shah, & Junaid, 2013; Andersen, Jørgensen, Bonnevie, Grønbæk, & Sørensen, 2000a; Maity, Biswas, Roy, Banerjee, & Bandyopadhyay, 2003), use of analgesics, stress (Levenstein, 1998), social conditions (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012), Helicobacter pylori, inheritance (blood group), personal traits, diet, and psychological factors (Johnsen, Førde, Straume, & Burhol, 1994).
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Peptic ulcer mainly occurs in the proximal duodenum (duodenal ulcer) or stomach (gastric ulcer) (Fig. 1). PUD forms a strong defensive mechanism against the gastrointestinal mucosa, such that bicarbonate and mucus secretion are overpowered by the detrimental effects of pepsin and gastric acid (Sung, Kuipers, & El-Serag, 2009). The study by Al-Zubeer et al. reveals that the cause of peptic ulcer can be attributed to stomach cells that secrete digestive juices (acid), which cause corrosion and huge damage in the lining of esophagus, duodenum, or stomach (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012).
Fig.1 Source: Medicine Net, Inc.
Peptic ulcer disease also occurs due to disorder in the balance between hostile factors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gastric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori, and protective factors such as bicarbonate, prostaglandins, blood flow to the mucosa, and mucus in the stomach and duodenum (Lin et al., 2015).

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