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HAFSAT ELEOJO HARUNA

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  • Name: CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD YEAST STRAINS FROM NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [10.7 MB]
  • Length: [54] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This purpose of this experiment was to characterize wild strains of yeasts from
different sources from north eastern Nigeria that have unique traits that will be
applicable in the bioethanol production industry. The yeast characterization of these
yeast strains were based on the yeast strain ability to grow at different temperature
conditions, their ability to grow in various pH condition and their ability ferment
different sugars. 10 yeast strains were tested. These yeast strains were isolated from
coconut, kunu (millet drink), sugar cane juice among others.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Bioethanol …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
1.12 Bioethanol production ………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.13 Bioethanol and fossil fuel ……………………………………………………………………………. 9
1.14 Fossil fuel and Bioethanol position in the economy ………………………………………. 11
1.15 Disadvantages of fossil fuel on health and environment………………………………… 13
1.16 Need for bioethanol ………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
1.17 Yeast ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
1.18 Research hypothesis …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
1.19 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
CHAPTER 2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
MATERIALS AND METHODS ……………………………………………………………………. 17
2.1 Collection of samples and isolation ………………………………………………………………. 17
2.2 Characterization based on growth at different temperature conditions …………… 18
2.3 Characterization based in the ability of yeast strain to ferment different sugars . 20
2.4 Characterization based on growth at different pH conditions …………………………. 21
CHAPTER 3………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
RESULTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
3.1 Characterization based on growth at different temperature conditions …………… 23
Table 3.12 showing the yeast strains grown in 45oC (Trial One) ……………………………. 23
Table 3.13 showing the SECOND TRIAL …………………………………………………………… 24
3.2 Characterization based in the ability of yeast strain to ferment different sugars . 25
3.21 TEST WITH 5% ARABINOSE SUGAR SOLUTION …………………………………. 25
3.22 TEST WITH 5% MALLITOL ………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.23 TEST WITH 5% FRUCTOSE…………………………………………………………………… 27
3.24 TEST WITH 5% SUCROSE …………………………………………………………………….. 28
3.25 TEST IN 5% GLUCOSE ………………………………………………………………………….. 29
3.3 Characterization based on growth at different pH conditions …………………………. 30
3.31 Test in pH 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
3.32 Test in pH4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
3.33 Test in pH6 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
3.34 Test in pH 8 …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
3.35 Test in pH10…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.35 Test in pH 12……………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
viii
CHAPTER 4………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
4.1 Summary of results ……………………………………………………………………………………. 36
4.13 Characterization based on growth at different temperature conditions …………. 36
4.2 Characterization based in the ability of yeast strain to ferment different sugars . 37
4.3 Characterization based on growth at different pH conditions …………………………. 37
4.4 Inconsistencies and errors …………………………………………………………………………… 38
4.5 Challenges …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
4.6 Solutions …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.7 Practical application …………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.8 Improvement of results ……………………………………………………………………………….. 39
CHAPTER 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
References………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
During the industrial age, the beginning of the world we have today, fossil fuels are
the main source of energy and power for different kinds of machines. The refining of
this fuel brings about petroleum and other by products (Van Maris et al, 2006).
Although this fossil fuel has been the source of energy for machines for a long period
of time, bioethanol is a breath of fresh air. Bioethanol is a new form of fuel that has
taken the world by storm. Ethanol is an alkyl alcohol that can be used in engine that
are spark ignition oriented, which is the type of car people use today. It has adequate
octane levels and it can either be mixed with petrol or used a lone fuel with cars that
will be built solely for its purpose (Xuan, 2010). The knowledge of global warming
is becoming more rampant and people are looking for ways to live a more
sustainable life by recycling, producing less waste, using hybrid cars and the use of
bioethanol. This global warming is one of the side effects of the over usage of fossil
fuels. The reservoirs for fossil fuel are diminishing because the fossil fuel is not
being restored as much as it is being used. This is known as diminishing returns in
economics and with the rate at which it is fossil fuel is being used, it is evident that it
will not be able to satisfy the ever-increasing needs and therefore, needs a substitute
(Dahida and Akangbe, 2013).
2
1.1 Bioethanol
Bioethanol is produced from mostly waste products containing high levels of sucrose
or starch and materials which have larger sugars and need to be fermented to be
broken down (Cardona & Sanchez, 2007). Bioethanol has started coming into the
limelight as an alternate fuel option. Example of an alternate fuel is biofuel. Biofuel
is made from material gotten from living organisms such as plants animals and their
by-products; this is called biomass. The use of biomass as fuel is a project that is
being considered because of the availability of materials and its positive impact on
the environment. Bioethanol is an example of a biofuel. Hence, it is safe to say that
Bioethanol is renewable because unlike fossil fuel, it can be renewed in our time.
Figure 1 BIOFUEL, WASTE AND BIOMATERIAL CYCLE
(Ragaukas et al, 2006; Bhatia, Johri and Rumana, 2012).
3
1.12 Bioethanol production
Materials needed for the production of bioethanol are divided in two. The first
generation materials and the second generation materials (European Renewable
Energy Council, 2006).
The first generation materials used for biofuels include corn (maize), sugarcane and
sugarcane waste known as bagasse, waste products from starch-based materials like
rice and wheat among others. Sugarcane is sometimes preferable because it does not
have to go through long processes before it used for fermentation to produce ethanol
and it also has a very high content of sucrose. Corn is the main product used in the
production of ethanol at this point in time because it is very high in starch although it
has to go through a process called enzymatic hydrolysis for it to be able to produce
sugars that can ferment (Wackett, 2008; Wilkie et al., 2000). Some countries in the
world already use this as a standard fuel together with hydrogen fuel.
Hydrogen fuel is a type of biofuel that is produced from biomass in a sustainable way
(Urbaneik, Freidl, Huisisngh and Claassen, 2010).
These include countries like the United States of America, Brazil and others. The
problem with using these crops is that they are staple foods in many parts of the
world and the amount of produce needed is far too much. The more this produce is
needed, the more its demand in the world and more demand means an increase in the
price of these goods because more demand will cause suppliers to hoard and increase
prices. This will affect the poor countries because they are the countries with
populations that eat these staple foods the most. This problem also lowers the
availability of land for the cultivation of crops like millet because the land that could
4
have been used to cultivate, millet for food for people to consume is now being used
to grow corn for bioethanol production instead of food and this will in turn make
millet scarce which will cause and increase in the millet price. (Frow et al., 2009).
The second-generation material has been suggested for the production of bioethanol
due to the side effects of using feedstock such as wheat and corn to produce
bioethanol. These materials are known as lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic
biomass are very promising materials looking at its availability, the low cost and its
richness in polysaccharide content (Fujii, Fang, Inoue and Murakami, 2009).
The polysaccharides in lignocellulosic materials are cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin
and pectin. Cellulose is the major ‘stakeholder’ in the make up of lignocellulose. It is
composed of thousands of D-glucose units. These are held together by B(1-4)
glycosidic bonds. Hemicellulose is comprised of xylose, arabinose, mannose,
glucose, galactose and uronic acids. It has a lower molecular weight than cellulose
and it is easily broken down to its various components (Perez et at al). Lignin
comprises of phenolic residues (Kumar, Perez, van Maris). Lignin is the molecule
(component) that gives support and helps with resistance to attack by microbes. This
is what also makes it hard for enzymes to pass through. This molecule is also
hydrophobic.

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