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Internationalization is a key strategy in some Nigerian banks for growth and greater profit opportunities. This development had led banks to embark on international expansion by opening subsidiaries abroad. Banking reforms especially recapitalization policy, increased regulatory controls, stiff competition in the domestic market, reduced market share, has impacted on the profitability of commercial banks in Nigeria. This study examined commercial banks internationalization and business outcomes in the banking industry in Nigeria with particular reference to selected banks that have subsidiaries in foreign countries.
The study adopted survey research design. The target population comprised of 17200 top level managers of the five top commercial banks with wholly owned subsidiaries outside Nigeria and a stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 793. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire and validated for the study. Cronbach Alpha reliability for major constructs ranged between 0.84 and 0.91. The response rate was 96.8%. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, hypothesis one and two were tested using simple regression and hypothesis three and four were tested using Pearson correlation statistics.
The findings revealed that commercial banks internationalization had a significant relationship on business outcomes in the banking industry in Nigeria. Results indicated that location choices of internationalized Nigerian commercial banks had significant effect on business outcome (F1/766 = 31.725; R2 = 0.345; p< 0.05. Government policies on internationalization had significant effect on the business outcome of an internationalized commercial bank (F1/766 = 101.152; R2 = 0.117; p< 0.05). Commercial banks motives for internationalization had significant relationship with business outcome (r=0.318; p< 0.05). Entry Mode had a significant relationship with business outcome of an internationalized commercial bank (r=0.778; p< 0.05).
The study concluded that internationalization resulted to positive business outcomes as internationalized banks benefited from growth in profitability, market share, increase in asset base and capitalization. The study recommends that banks seeking opportunities in foreign markets must conduct detailed feasibility studies to understand barriers to entry, factors that affect location choice, influence of government policies and select entry mode that ensures it can constantly compete in the foreign market.
Keywords: Internationalization, Business Outcomes, Commercial banks, Transaction cost. Resource-based View, foreign direct investments.
Word Count: 350
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Hypotheses 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
1.7 Significance of the Study 6
1.8 Operationalization of Variables 6
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Review 9
2.1.1 Motive for Internationalization 10
2.1.2 Location Choices 11
2.1.3 Government Policy 14
2.1.4 Entry Mode 16
2.2.0 The Theories of Internationalization 21
2.2.1 Incremental Internationalization Models 21
2.2.2 Innovation- related internationalization Model 23
2.2.3 Dunnings eclectic paradigm 24
2.2.4 The industrial network approach 25
2.2.5 Rapid Internationalization Models 25
2.2.6 Resource-based View 26
2.2.7 Transaction Cost Analysis 28
2.2.8 Internalization Theory 29
2.2.9 Banks and theories of internationalization 30
126.96.36.199 The Nature of Services 30
188.8.131.52 The Uppsala model and the Internationalization of Banks 31
184.108.40.206 The eclectic theory and the internationalization of banks 32
220.127.116.11 The resource-based view (RBV) and the internationalization of banks 33
18.104.22.168 Transaction Cost Analysis and the internationalization of banks 34
2.3 Empirical Review 36
2.3.1 Empirical review of commercial banks internationalization 36
2.3.2 Empirical review on Location Choice 36
2.3.3 Empirical review on Government Policies 39
2.3.4 Empirical review on Motives 41
2.3.5 Empirical review on Entry Modes 43
2.3.6 Business Outcomes 45
2.4 Gaps in Literature 48
2.5 Research Model and Hypothesis 49
2.6 The Nigerian Banking Environment 51
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 55
3.2 Population 56
3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 57
3.4 Method of Data Collection 59
3.5 Research Instrument 59
3.6 Pilot Study 59
3.7 Validity of Research Instrument 60
3.8 Reliability of Research Instrument 60
3.9 Method of Data analysis 61
3.10 Model Specification 61
3.11 A Priori Expectation 62
3.12 Limitation of Methodology 62
3.13 Ethical Consideration 62
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Response Rate 64
4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Demographic Profile of the Respondents 64
4.3 Data Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion of Findings 66
4.3.1 Restatement of Objectives and Research Question One 67
4.3.2 Restatement of Objectives and Research Question Two 76
4.3.3 Restatement of Objectives and Research Question Three 82
4.3.4 Restatement of Objectives and Research Question Four 87
4.4 Summary of Findings 91
5.1 Summary 94
5.2 Conclusion 96
5.3 Recommendations 97
5.4 Contributions to Knowledge 98
5.5 Implication of the Findings 98
5.5.1 Managerial Implications 98
5.5.2 Implications to Regulatory authorities and Policy Makers 99
5.5.3 Implications for society 100
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 100
LIST OF TABLES
2.1: 2012 cross-border subsidiary of Nigeria Banks’ in Africa and other continent 53
3.1: List of Selected Internationalized Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria and their
Total Number of Employees 57
3.2: Distribution of Questionnaire by banks 58
3.3: Questionnaires Cronbach alpha coefficient 60
4.1: Response Rate 64 4.2: Analysis of Demographic Characteristics of Respondent 65
4.3: Descriptive Analysis of Location Choices in internationalization of Nigerian
Commercial banks 67
4.4: Descriptive Analysis of Business Outcomes of Internationalized Banks 70
4.5: Coefficients of regression of location choices in relation to business outcomes 73
4.6: Descriptive Analysis of Government Policy 76
4.7: Coefficients of regression Government Policies in relation to business outcome
of an internationalized commercial bank 79
4.8: Descriptive Analysis of motives and reasoning behind internationalization of
Commercial Banks in Nigeria 82
4.9: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient for relationship between
Commercial banks motives for internationalization and business outcome 86
4.10: Descriptive Analysis of Entry Mode 88
4.11: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient for relationship between
entry mode and business outcome of an internationalized commercial bank. 90
4.12: Summary of findings of hypotheses 91
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 The Basic Mechanism of internationalization- State and Change Aspect 23
2.2 Diagrammatical Representation of Gap in the Literature 50
1.1 Background to the Study
The banking sector in Nigeria witnessed phenomenal growth following the 2004 consolidation that increased minimum capital requirement from N2billion to N25billion. The opening up of the Nigerian economy through various structural reforms, and trade liberalization led to setting up of many banks in Nigeria. These banks had inadequate capital base and were unable to play the role expected of them in economic development. In 2003 there were 89 banks and in a period of 10 years, precisely 2013, the number has reduced to 23. Over the same period, Nigerian banks automated its operations to serve their customers more effectively and efficiently and to keep pace with global technological advancement. As part of the reforms, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) grouped the banks into international, national and regional banks and cancelled the universal banking policy. The reason was for banks to operate according to their capacities (Alade, 2014). Prior to that categorization, most banks developed strategies for growth that included expanding local branch networks and opening offshore branches.
In the Nigerian banking industry, Citibank, Ecobank, Stanbic IBTC, Standard Chartered and Ned bank have their roots outside the shores of Nigeria. Citibank, Ecobank, Stanbic IBTC, Standard Chartered have been in Nigeria since 1989, Ned bank was granted license in 2013 and only started operations in 2014. Nigerian commercial banks started their foray outside the shores of the country in 2002 with United Bank for Africa (UBA) and Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB) opening branches in two countries in Africa. Six years later, 10 Nigerian banks that scaled the hurdle of consolidation followed the footsteps of UBA and GTB thereby creating a situation in the banking sector where the number of Nigerian banks with branches in other countries especially African countries outweighs that of international banks operating in Nigeria. Internationalization refers to the process of increasing involvement in international operations (Asika, 2006). The merits of internationalization accrue to both the expanding banks and the recipient banking system. The main benefits for the parent company would be risk diversification and greater profit opportunities for shareholders. The recipient banking systems, on the other hand, would benefit through increased intermediation and improved efficiency resulting from technological advancement, reduced interest rates and efficiency improvements due to increased competition. Internationalization has been a reservoir of skill, equipment, efficiency and technological transfers, mainly from advanced countries to emerging markets; this is based on the premise that local firms in emerging markets gain from the foreign direct investment externalities through improved efficiency, labour, exports and global integration (Brouthers & Hennart, 2007).
The banking sector is a catalyst and engine of growth in the Nigerian economy and growth in this sector is expected to continue at a faster rate given the growth prospects, and the various transformation policies of the Federal Government. As a result of the financial reform policy of the Central Bank of Nigeria, especially the consolidation policy, there has been a marked increase in the internationalization activities of Nigerian banks. Four top commercial banks namely United Bank for Africa (UBA), Access Bank, GTBank and Zenith Bank combined are operating in more than 20 countries in the African continent as well as presence in UK, China, France and USA (Ebimo, 2014). Ebimo (2014), further observed that despite the economic crisis and increasing stringent controls and monitoring by regulators, Nigerian banks are determined in their foreign market entries with fresh decisions about offshore expansions made regularly by bank boards and management. The growing regional integration among developing economies is providing a veritable platform for firms in these economies to explore the inherent benefits of internationalization. Business outcome refers to accounting and non-accounting parametres employed to determine the success or otherwise of an enterprise that has internationalized its operations. Such accounting measures include return on capital employed, profit margin, sales margin, market share and incremental deposit mobilized.
The work of Hamzat and Ajila (2006) employed common indicators of performance measurement that are largely accounting-based. This study will extend this further by investigating the motive behind internationalization as a measure of the outcome. For example, one of the motives of banks internationalization is to follow their customers across various countries they operate in. This will involve value chain marketing of the customers’ retailers, suppliers, contractors wherever the customer establishes subsidiaries. In this case, bank internationalization is motivated by maintaining existing client base.
Onafowora and Onoye, (2006), Ezeoha (2007) opined that internationalization in Nigeria dates back a few years ago when indigenous companies realized that the world is becoming a global village and that moving with the trend would offer them more opportunity and unlimited scope for growth. Nevertheless, there is no coordinated approach that may help practitioners have a deep understanding of the internationalization decisions of the productive and service sectors. Scholars like Brouthers and Brouthers, (2001) had developed a globalization model for manufacturing companies, these models were concentrated on western countries and were not thoroughly verified in less advanced countries (Onafowora & Onoye, 2006).
Contemporary studies of internationalization and firm economic performance outcomes are largely based on western countries. Studies explaining the relationship between internationalization and business outcome as it relates to emerging markets have been extremely few (Nachum, 2004). The work of scholars such as Fleury and Junior, (2007), Contractor, Kumar and Kundu (2007), are largely based on firms from emerging economies like Russia, India, China and Brazil
Based on the foregoing, this study provides an insight on commercial banks internationalization and business outcomes in the context of a country in sub-saharan Africa, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Globally, many companies that are facing slow domestic growth are attracted to internationalization to enhance business fortunes (Duysters, 2009). Greater competitive pressures force firms to internationalize, and consequently firms need to respond to new levels of complexity surrounding the diverse cultural, institutional and competitive environment. In the manufacturing sector two companies, Haier Group and Tata Group, provide ready examples. In 1984, a renowned manufacturer of comprehensive household appliances in China, the Haier Group, was close to bankruptcy as evidenced in declining turnover and high debt profile. The trend of globalization and the rising interdependence of the world economy since the late 1980s marked a turning point in the history of Haier (Duysters, 2009). The company envisaged keen competition from foreign firms in a hitherto (largely) protected domestic market. Haier thus restrategized changing its focus from the domestic market to foreign markets.
Tata Group is India’s largest business group deriving half of its earnings from export and offshore production. The reason or motive for internationalization was the desire to diversify and reduce dependence on a declining and stagnant domestic market. Goldberg and Johanson,1990; Buch and Lipponer, 2004; Magri, Mori, and Rossi (2005) postulated that commercial banks as service providers, establish in foreign countries to increase market share, maximize profit and maintain existing clients who are expanding to foreign markets. Furthermore, they also expand to exploit ownership advantages that include technology, organizational skills, managerial competence, and credit and marketing skills. It has been mentioned that the first mistake companies make is in choosing the wrong motives to expand internationally (Wenbo, 2007). Going abroad because the domestic market has little or no growth is a bad reason. It has been suggested that failure in internationalization initiatives could be as a result of adopting improper internationalization strategy and process due to knowledge gap of the specific features and developments in the extremely competitive global market.
Walmart, the most successful retail operation in USA failed in Germany due to poor management and total absence of analysis of the local market or culture of the host country (Andreas & Andreas, 2003). Another object of concern is mode of entry into foreign markets. There are different entry modes, the most common are alliances and joint ventures, franchising, importing and exporting, licensing agreements, wholly–owned subsidiaries, mergers and acquisitions (Luthans & Doh, 2009). Why do Nigerian banks prefer subsidiary mode and not any other entry mode, especially given the inherent risk and higher cost in terms of resources and commitment of finance? The Central bank of Nigeria in 2012 discouraged Nigerian banks from shoring up the capital base of their foreign subsidiaries due to the pressure it places on the balance sheet of parent banks. The apex bank had insisted that the parent (Nigerian) banks should either raise capital to recapitalize their foreign subsidiaries in the host countries or exit such foreign subsidiaries in the event of failure to raise capital.
Due to slow recovery of the capital market, Access bank has to divest from its Cote d’ivore subsidiary. Aside the substantial investment in internationalization by companies globally, there has been a limited acceptable ways to determine business outcomes and methods of measurement and this limitation could lead to defects. As a result many researches use financial metrics such as sales, profit, and balance sheet size as a form of measuring firm business outcomes. Nevertheless, non- accounting and qualitative methods can replace accounting methods as objective measures of outcome (Brothers and Hennart, 2007). It is suggested in this study that other than the usual measures of internationalization outcome, motives behind the internationalization would be used to measure business outcome.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the relationship between commercial banks Internationalization and business outcomes in the Nigerian banking industry in the context of domestic economic reform and liberalization of trade. The specific objectives are to:
1.4 Research Questions
The hypotheses of this study were tested at P < 0.05 level of significance
H01 Location choices of internationalized Nigerian commercial banks does not have significant effect on business outcome.
H02 Government policies on internationalization do not have significant effect on the business outcome of an internationalized commercial bank.
H03 The commercial banks motives for internationalization does not have significant relationship with the business outcome
H04 There is no significant relationship between entry mode and business outcome of an internationalized commercial bank.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In terms of geographical area, the five commercial banks chosen all have head offices in Lagos, Nigeria and the study will focus on internationalization activities within the African continent. In this study, the researcher did not focus on merchant banks or foreign banks operating in Nigeria such as Citibank, StanbicIbtc, Standard Chartered bank but on indigenous banks with origin from Nigeria with subsidiaries outside Nigeria and listed on the local bourse. The banks selected are Access bank, First bank, Gtbank, Zenith Bank and UBA.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Society: Banking is a crucial sector to the welfare of all business entities and the society at large. The society comprises of equity investors and the banking public who are consumers of banking services, equity investors would earn good returns on their investments owing to internationalization activities of commercial banks while consumers can conveniently access banking services no matter where they are.
Industry and Management Practice: For industry players, the findings are very useful as it educates players on how to successfully internationalize to respond to competition from international banks for the developing economies of sub-saharan Africa. Managers of commercial banks could through this study get an insight on how best to construct investment portfolio among other industry firms.
Academic Relevance: The study would be useful in generating new knowledge and opening new frontiers as such academics would find a source of reference for future research.
For students, it will provide fresh insight into the phenomenon of international expansion by commercial banks. The study is original in view of the fact that it adds to the literature, the factors that determine foreign expansion by banks from an emerging economy, in this case, Nigeria. The findings shall constitute an important body of knowledge for students and also enhance their understanding of the subject.
Stakeholders and Government: Policy makers would find the result useful in policy formulation and implementation in ensuring that conducive environment that supports indigenous banks to internationalize is created.
1.8 Operationalization of Variables
The variables in this study are location, entry mode, motivation and government policies
Y = f(X)
Y = Dependant Variable – Business Outcomes
X = Independent Variable – Factors that influence Internationalization
X = (x1, x2, x3, x4)
Where Y = Business Outcome
x1 = Location Choices
x2 = Government Policies (home and host country)
x3 = Motive for Internationalization
x4 = Entry mode
Y = f(x1, x2, x3, x4)
Y = f(x1)………………………………………….(1)
Y = f(x2)………………………………………….(2)
Y = f(x3)………………………………………….(3)
Y = f(x4)……………………………………….. (4)
The Specific models are
Y = a0 + β1 x1+ e……………………………..H01
Y = a0 + β2 x2 +e………………………………H02
Y = f(x3) ………………………………………H03
Y = f( x4) ……………………………………..H04
Where Y = Business Outcome
x1 = Location choice
x2 = Government Policy
x3 = Motive for Internationalization
x4 = Entry mode
e = error term
a0 = intercept of the model
β1 – β2 are the coefficients of the respective component of Internationalization.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Business Outcome: Business outcome which can also be referred to business performance indicates how well an enterprise performs as a result of internationalization of its operations and is an essential factor in measuring organization success. Business outcome will be measured in this study by quantitative and qualitative methods. Such quantitative methods will be accounting-based such as percentage contribution of foreign subsidiaries to turnover, profit, total assets and deposits. Qualitative methods will incorporate motives of the bank for foreign expansion and how well it was achieved.
Location choices: refers to the factors that influence choices that banks make in deciding in which market or country to invest in. It refers to all the key factors of production such as geographical location, transportation and traffic, culture and history, and political legal system.
Mode of Entry: is the formal arrangement that guarantees seamless establishment of a bank’s presence and the transfer of bank’s products, innovation and services, information technology platform, human resources, management and organizational skills into a foreign country. It is the implementation stage of a bank’s internationalization process in which the firm relying on its own resources, such as capital, techniques, brand or management experiences through various investment modes to penetrate target country or region.
Motive for Internationalization: Focuses on the reason behind the decision by a bank to internationalize. In general, the progresses of economic advancement and integration, technology innovation and intensified competition motivate the internationalization of banks.
Government Policies: The policies of home and host countries that act as incentive or disincentive for internationalization such as trade reforms, liberalization and political support of the government.
Commercial Banks: refers to banks licensed to accept deposit from customers, which may be individuals or corporates and provide a payment transmission service, savings and loan facilities. It is different from a merchant bank to the extent that a commercial bank is retail for basic banking needs, whereas merchant banks is wholesale for high net worth individuals and large companies. Commercial banks operate several branches while merchant banks maintain a branch or very few branches in major cities.
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