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  • Name: COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY AND INQUIRY BASED METHOD IN THE LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
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ABSTRACT

Science may be viewed as a way of questioning or verifying the truthfulness of knowledge. It also can be said to be the knowledge which is obtained through careful and systematic observation and testing of facts. In fact, technology is the secret behind the development of many countries and nations. It is what is produced through science that is applied in technology for the comfort of man. Therefore, the elementary idea(s) of scientific and technological knowledge’s are introduced early to enable students to develop interest in their areas of talents and to choose a life career.

This research work aimed at finding comparative effect of co-operative learning strategy and inquiry based method in the learning of chemistry among secondary schools students was designed to show that methods of instruction could change students positively towards Chemistry. The population of this study was 250 senior secondary school two (SS2) science students in all the public schools in Amac Local Government Area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used and findings of this study had further established the fact that there is need for improved strategies in the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools in order to achieve better students’ performance. Also recommendations were made based on the results obtained.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

List of Tables

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of study

1.2 Statement of problem

1.3 Purpose of study

1.4 Significance of study

1.5 Scope of study

1.6 Research question

1.7 Research hypotheses

1.8 Definition of terms/ Keywords

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 THE NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

  • COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
  • INQUIRY BASED LEARNING METHOD

2.3.1 Origin and Goals of Inquiry Based Learning

2.3.2 Characteristics of Problem Based Learning

2.3.3 Role of the teacher and student in Inquiry/Problem Based Learning

2.3.4 Benefits of IBL

2.3.5 Barriers to IBL Implementation

2.3.6 Students’ Perception of IBL

2.4 COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY (CLS) AS AN IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY

  • COVARIANCE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Design of the research

3.2 Area of study

3.3 Population of study

3.4 Instruments of data collection

3.5 Methods of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of study

The study of Chemistry is an in-depth, insightful look at how we are leveraging our strengths to continue growing into the future. It’s a combine study of major areas of the science for the improvement and upliftment of mankind and the benefit of the worlds around us as we know it today. Chemistry as a course has a revolutionary science curriculum developed many years back, intended for students considering a career in science.

Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms (or groups of atoms) and various forms of energy (e.g. photochemical reactions, changes in phases of matter, separation of mixtures, properties of polymers, etc.).

Chemistry is sometimes called “the central science” because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology with each other. Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.

The etymology of the word chemistry has been much disputed. The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world, particularly the Middle East.

It is for some people a mean of studying old but unresolved problems and issues in science education. It is also a convenient platform for drawing attention to some research findings relating to learning and teaching science. It is a timely device for gaining some say in the fate or destiny of science education in a field that has traditionally been firmly held by scientist.

According to Theodore L. Brown, (1999) Chemistry is about finding out things, doing experiments and learning what others have found out before us. It is a subject that offers students the chance to look at science in a new way lot following the traditional divisions’ into Biology, chemistry and physic. Teaching Chemistry gives students and teachers an opportunity to look at the ways in which science is important to our societies and to their development. Chemistry can be more relevant to developmental issues, and should be topical as well as useful, rather than dry and academic, thus the need for various learning strategies including Co-operative and Inquiry based methods as being treated in this context using a case study of selected Secondary schools in Nigeria.

 

1.2 Statement of problem                                         

Science is one of the ways man searches for the truth so as to achieve understanding of his environment and the universe at large. Science is the search for knowledge about the universe and how it works. It is the search that never ends because, people who research never settle for the first explanation they obtain, but always sought the fundamental reasons why everything is the way they are.

Science is offered as a core discipline with Chemistry as the King course or subject. It is a body of empirical, theoretical and practical knowledge about the natural world produce by researchers making use of scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, explanation and prediction of real world phenomena through experiments.

Having said the above, there is need for comparison on the various teaching and learning patterns employed in the study of the course/subject Chemistry, just as this work would compare the effect of co-operative learning strategy and inquiry based method on Secondary schools.

 

1.3 Purpose of study                                          

Chemistry teaching is supposed to be result oriented and students centred, and this can only be achieved when students are willing and the teachers are favourably disposed, using the appropriate methods and resources in teaching the students. Students by nature are curios; they need to be actively involved in the learning process in which they are continuously equipping, testing, speculating and building their own personal construct and knowledge. It is only by personalizing such knowledge that it becomes valid, meaningful and useful to them. In chemistry, students need to actively construct their own personal awareness and meaning. To substantiate the argument, Usman remarked that the brain is not a passive consumer of information and to learn with understanding, a learner must actively construct meaning of what to be learned.

Science practical in schools is aimed at giving the students the opportunity to gain meaningful learning, acquire appropriate skills and attitudes that enable them live and contribute to the development of society. And it cannot be achieved when the ineffective teaching pattern and strategy is being used.

 

1.4 Significance of study                                           

Education, particularly Science and Technical education, is the ‘factory’ for the production of the needed technologists, technicians and craftsmen as well as skilled artisans who are required to turn the nation’s economy around and usher in the desired technological advancement which is very much required for the elevation of Nigeria from a ‘consumer nation’ to a ‘producer nation’; from a ‘developing nation’ to a ‘developed nation’. Acquisition of appropriate scientific and technological skills through appropriate teaching pattern is necessary to cope with the challenge presented by the evolving needs of modern work place in our industries and the ever growing non-formal sector. Education and training systems that responds adequately to these demands will therefore, contribute to the efforts to overcome the growing unemployment and marginalization of majority of the populace. By providing access to appropriate learning experience designed to broaden skills and knowledge can increase productivity and significantly improve the fortunes of the unemployed, thereby reducing poverty and unemployment amongst the youth right from their secondary school age.

 

1.5 Scope of study                                                     

Within the context of science education, Chemistry has been identified as a very important science subject and its importance in scientific and technological development of any nation has been widely reported. It was as a result of the recognition given to Chemistry in the development of the individual and the nation that it was made a core – subject among the natural sciences and other science – related courses in Nigerian education system. It has been a pre-requisite subject for offering most science oriented courses in the tertiary institution and this call for the need in finding and defining strategies that will improve students’ performance in the course. Despite the prime position chemistry occupies in our educational system and the efforts made by researchers to enhance performance, students’ performance in chemistry and sciences in general are still low. Some of the reasons identified for this failure are inappropriate teaching methods employed by teachers, laboratory inadequacy, teachers’ attitude, and examination malpractice, time constraint for conduction of practicals, non-coverage of syllabus, class size, non-professionalism and environment.

In the light of the above assertions, the scope of this research work will cover the comparative effect of co-operative learning and inquiry based learning strategies employed in teaching secondary school students Chemistry with reference to the practical aspect majorly.

 

1.6 Research question      

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

 

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the performance of high scorers, medium scorers and low scorers in chemistry exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

      

 

                                 

1.7 Research hypotheses

The following hypotheses were generated and tested for the study;

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

Hi1: There is significant difference in the performance of chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

 

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

Hi2: There is significant difference in the performance of male and female chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

 

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the performance of high scorers, medium scorers and low scorers in chemistry exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

Hi3: There is significant difference in the performance of high scorers, medium scorers and low scorers in chemistry exposed to cooperative learning strategy and inquiry based method.

 

1.8 Definition of terms/ Keywords

Science – Science is one of the ways man searches for the truth and to achieve understanding of his environment and the universe at large. It is the search for knowledge about the universe and how it works.

Technology

Chemistry

CLS – Cooperative learning strategy

IBL- Inquiry Based Learning

IBLM- Inquiry Based Learning Method

ANCOVA – Analysis of covariance

CPT – Chemistry Performance Test

DV- Dependent Variables

IV- Independent Variables

CV- Continuous Variables

 

 

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