Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

AYOMIPO SARAH MADEIN

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF OXYGENATES ON BIODIESEL FROM FRESH AND USED COOKING OIL
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1.61 MB]
  • Length: [49] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that will soon be fully accepted in the commercial world but there are limitations to its use that need improvement. The use of oxygenated additives have improved the burning/fuel qualities of conventional diesel and gasoline. These oxygenates may also improve the qualities of biodiesel. This paper focuses on comparing the fuel qualities such as the density, specific gravity, heat content, flash point, and kinematic viscosity of oxygenate-biodiesel blends. The biodiesel was produced from fresh and waste cooking oil and they were characterized and compared to ASTM standards. The oxygenated additives (ethanol, methanol and diethyl ether) were blended in the percentages 10, 20, 30 and 40% with biodiesel from fresh and waste oil. The physicochemical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity, flash point and heat content were analyzed for the blends. The density and specific gravity values were within the range of 0.74-0.84 g/ml and 0.76-0.85 respectively. The kinematic viscosities at 40oC were within 3.5-5.0 mm2s-1 after oxygenated additives were added. The blends ignited at 16oC before the flash points could be gotten. The heat content values for the biodiesel from fresh oil increased at 10 and 20% but decreased at 40% while that of biodiesel from waste oil decreased at 10, 30, and 40% for the ethanol and methanol blends. The diethyl ether blend did not show any pattern with increase in addition. The oxygenate addition improved the density, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF EQUATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
CHAPTER 1: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Biodiesel …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Advantages of biodiesel ……………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.3 Biodiesel production ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.4 Waste vegetable oil as feed stock ………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.5 Limitations of Biodiesel …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.6 Aims, Objectives and Significance ………………………………………………………………………. 5
CHAPTER 2: Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………. 6
2.1 Emissions characteristics ………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.2 Flash point ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3 Density …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.4 Energy content ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.5 Viscosity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
2.6 Pour point and cloud point ……………………………………………………………………………… 12
CHAPTER 3: Materials and Methods…………………………………………………………………………. 14
3.1 Materials ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
3.2 Characterization of the fresh and waste cooking oil …………………………………………… 14
3.2.1 Free fatty acid content …………………………………………………………………………….. 14
3.2.2 Moisture content ……………………………………………………………………………………. 15
3.2.3 Specific gravity ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

CHAPTER 4: Results and discussion …………………………………………………………………………. 20
4.1 Percentage yield …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
4.2 Confirmation of biodiesel produced using GC-MS and IR ……………………………………. 20
4.3 Characteristics of the biodiesel produced …………………………………………………………. 22
4.4 Density …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
4.5 Viscosity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
4.6 Flash point …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
4.7 Heat content …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
CHAPTER 5: Summary and Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….. 33
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
The recognition of global warming and depletion of fossil fuels has led to the search for other energy options which are environmental friendly and sustainable. Emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels has led scientists to turn to biofuels as an alternative source. Biofuels are fuels made from different types of biomass such as cellulose, algal oil, corn, soy, sugar cane, jatropha, camelina, rapseed, animal fat, methane, paper waste and the likes. These sources create different fuels such as bioalcohols, plant based biodiesel and kerosene, biogas, solid biofuels and the likes (Webb & Coates, 2012).
1.1 Biodiesel
Biodiesel has grown quite a name for itself since its inception in the 20th century. It is a liquid biofuel composed of simple alkyl esters of fatty acids made from the trans-esterification of vegetable oils and animal fats which are renewable and nontoxic. It is known for its production of low greenhouse gases as compared to fossil fuel (Fangrui & Milford, 1999). The biodiesel produced is independent of the starting material which makes any material containing free fatty acids a suitable feedstock (Michael, Andrew, Winnie, & Thomas , 2006).
Biodiesel production has increased considerably in the last thirty years due to its properties that confirm it environmentally suitable. It is now being accepted in the commercial world as several institutions adopt its use such as businesses, governmental
2
organizations, schools and the likes. This trend is expected to continue over the years to come (Michael, Andrew, Winnie, & Thomas , 2006).
1.2 Advantages of biodiesel
The advantages of biodiesel over conventional diesel have been proven to be very essential in curbing emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to the fact that it has 10-11% oxygen by weight and allows for complete combustion of the fuel (Arjun, Chris, & Rafiqul, 2008). Its use comes with lower health problems which is possible since it has a reduced emission of carcinogenic substances. The environment is safer even with biofuel spill due to its high degradability and low toxicity (Romano & Sorichetti, 2011). Reports have suggested that the life cycle of carbon dioxide emissions have been cut down to 30% with the use of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel (Gerard, Bruno, Dominique, Laurent, & Jean-Alain, 2003). As promising as biodiesel is there are limitations to it that need improvement.

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.