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The degree of confusion/illusion and domestic revenue wastages by GSM subscribers due
to GSM promotional products increase annually. The GSM network operators are often
ingenious and are typically motivated by money, anonymity or both. Due to the rising
competition in the GSM promotion, network operators are becoming more collaborative,
and as a result, more ingenious. Because of this, comparison of GSM promotion
subscribers’ application services is required as an advisor to keep pace with the numerous
promotional products churn out by GSM Operators regularly. A system to compare GSM
promotion subscribers in changing GSM operations with high impact on time is
proposed. The study uses Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple Comparison
techniques to detect the significant differences between the subscribers’ data and rank the
alternatives to determine the best promotion and applied the multivariate analysis in
evaluating the last releases to help us improve the processes. The system compares the
potential and profitable GSM promotion subscriptions drawn from twenty states across
the six geo-political zones in Nigeria for effective decision making. The system has been
developed using AJAX for UI, JAVA as a development language, Netbeans as a
development environment and Microsoft Visio as an UML tool for analysis & design.
The analysis of the data shows a reasonably strong correlation between the input
variables. The result shows that more than 87% of the outputs were accurate. From the
result that has been produced, multivariate analysis and Scheffe’s Method of Multiple
Comparison has the potential to be used for comparing GSM promotion subscriptions.




Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification Page – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – v
Tables of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Figure- – – – – – – – – ix
List Table – – – – – – – – – – x
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xi
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Definitions of Relevant Terms used in the Research – – – 6
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 8
2.1 Theoretical Background – – – – – – – 8
2.1.1 GSM Promotion – – – – – – – – 9
2.1.2 Types of GSM Network Promotion – – – – – – 12 Types of Glo Promotion – – – – – – – 13 Types of MTN Promotion – – – – – – – 14 Types of Etisalat Promotion – – – – – – 14 Types of Airtel Promotion – – – – – – – 17 Types of Visafone Promotion – – – – – – 19
2.2 Related Work – – – – – – – – – 21
2.2.1 Related Statistical Work – – – – – – – 21
2.2.2 Multivariate Analysis – – – – – – – 22
2.2.3 Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple Comparison technique – – 23
2.2.4 Complexity of Comparison of GSM Promotion Subscribers’
Application Services Methods – – – – – – 23
2.2.5 Motivation for Multivariate Analysis and Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise
Multiple Comparison techniques – – – – – 24
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 26
3.1 Data Gathering – – – – – – – – – 26
3.2 Analysis of the Existing System – – – – – – 27
3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System – – – – – – 28
3.3.1 Multivariate analysis of variance-GSM Promotion on Twenty Dimensions 28
3.3.2 Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple Comparison – – – 34
3.4 Description of the model for GSM promotion subscribers’ comparison – 34
3.5 System Design – – – – – – – – – 35
3.5.1 Use Case Diagram – – – – – – – – 36
3.5.2 Class Diagram – – – – – – – – 37
3.5.3 Activity Diagram – – – – – – – – 38
3.5.4 Sequential Diagram – – – – – – – – 39
3.5.5 Database Design – – – – – – – – 40
3.5.6 System Architecture – – – – – – – – 42
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 43
4.1 The Implementation Architecture – – – – – – 43
4.2 The System Specifications – – – – – – – 44
4.2.1 Software Specification – – – – – – – 44
4.2.2 Hardware Specification – – – – – – – 44
4.3 Development Environment – – – – – – – 44
4.4 System Integration and Testing – – – – – – 45
4.5 Documentation – – – – – – – – 45
4.5.1 User’s Manual – – – – – – – – – 45
4.5.2 Source Code Listing – – – – – – – – 50
4.6 Performance Evaluation of the Proposed System – – – – 51
4.6.1 Performance Evaluation of the Proposed System – – – – 52
5.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 56
5.1 Summary of Achievements – – – – – – – 56
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 56
5.2.1 Suggested Areas for Further Studies – – – – – 57
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 57




1.1 Background
GSM promotion subscribers are increasing and changing frequently resulting in
higher degree of confusion in comparison and selection of the right GSM operators that
provides low tariff promotion products, hence, the loss of billions of domestic revenue
worldwide annually by different subscribers. The history of GSM promotion was
reviewed by Coyles and Gokey (2005). The promotion subscribers’ comparison is the act
or process of examining two or more set of promotion subscribers in order to discover
similarities and differences between them. The GSM promotion subscribers’ comparison
is an identified process for examining two or more set of GSM promotion subscribers in
order to discover similarities and differences between them. It has identified itself as one
of the remedies for domestic revenue wastage by subscribers.
According to the International Journal of Business and Social Sciences; The
Determinants of Customer Loyalty in Nigeria’s GSM Market; Volume 3, No 14, page
210 (Special Issue – July 2012) – The explosive growth rate in the market has thrown up
intense rivalry among the GSM operators and necessitated the need to engage in
marketing activities that would enable them to retain a large chunk of their customers and
make them loyal. The resultant competition has led to the reduction in tariff, introduction
of new and innovative products, advertising blitz, rising sales promotion, and innovative
customer service. The choice of these promotion products and subscription in GSM
networks has been a problem that has always beleaguered the base line of subscribers
who are interested in different packages according to their requirements/benefits.
According to Deng et al (1998) the ability of a service provider to create high
degree of satisfaction is crucial for subscription differentiation and developing strong
relationship with the user. The lure of this satisfaction derived from promotion
subscription differentiation and development turns many people into an ocean of
confusion/illusion facing the stress of which network and/or package to subscribe to.
With the competition becoming tough, service providers realized that retaining
one’s existing customer base is important as much as the acquiring of a new customer
(Coyles and Gokey (2005)). The situation, according to Long and Chun (2004) makes
mobile telecommunication companies not only to promote their service quality, but also
change their marketing core strategy to holding their existing customers by enhancing
and optimizing the customer loyalty. In the light of this intense competition, the major
challenge confronting all the mobile operators in Nigeria, therefore is the determination,
comparison, selection and execution of promotion subscriptions that would not only lead
to attraction of new subscribers, but also retention of the existing ones who would then
become loyal customers. This generated strong argument on the quest for subscription
differentiation and development as identified by Deng et al. Consequently, great number
of GSM promotion products is released on the daily basis. Considering this, there is a
need for the comparison of GSM promotion subscribers which is basically ignored in our
society and cause a lot of damages to mobile network operators’ financial and customer
base, rendering subscribers to change service providers regularly.
Price plays a vital role in telecommunication market especially for the mobile
telecommunication service providers (Kollmann (2000)). Customers can suffer from
indiscriminate tariff/service charges due to loss of confidence in benefits attached to a
particular promotion package and can also experience ‘overcharged bills’ (that is, bills
that could be ordinarily lesser if the right promotion package is subscribed to) due to lack
of loyalty to a particular GSM promotion provider that serve them best at a given period.
It is therefore necessary according to Gustafsson et al. (1998) for a telecommunication
service provider to concentrate on the improvement of service quality and charge
appropriate fair price in order to satisfy its subscribers which will ultimately help in
retaining them. Hence, proper comparison of these essential promotion subscribers has
become inevitable so as to estimate and engage those with fair prices.
On the other hand, Ahn et al (2003) noted that users get satisfied to a brand more
if they get all the needed services accumulated in that very brand. Consequently,
subscribers attach themselves to those brands that usually provide the needed and
accumulated qualities. Therefore, there is a need for both network operators and potential
subscribers to have an effective, current, fast and accurate automated system that should
be able to compare different set of promotion subscribers (considering all the embedded
and accumulated services) with each other within or between networks.
Nigeria has maintained its lead as African’s largest telecom market with active
subscribers of 92,006,608 by the end of February, 2012 (Nigerian Communications
Commission (2012), relegating South Africa to second place with about 60 million
subscribers. This represents a tele-density of 68.68% up from a tele-density of 0.73% in
2001. The more we experience high growth of subscribers the more different promotion
packages are developed and confusion in the choice of suitable GSM promotion service
provider. More so, the high growth of subscribers resulting in impressive financial
performance of the GSM providers has necessitated the need to examine the factors that
minimize the rate of domestic income expenditure/wastage (on the side of subscribers)
and influence customer loyalty in the market (on the side of GSM service providers).
In today’s market, the mobile technology has been extremely competitive and
service providers are moving aggressively to attract versatile subscribers by offering
some meaningful attractive promotions and services. The comparison and estimation of
these set of promotion subscribers become an integral part of the processes to this
attraction as to enable different service providers achieve this major objective.
The image of a service provider is also a consideration to a subscriber and
according to Lambert (1999), brand plays an important role in user’s selection of service
provider even when the call rate offered by that provider is high. It is therefore, an
affirmation that GSM subscribers often attribute quality to branded products on the basis
of price, brand reputation, store image, market share, product features and service
provider. This serves as a major reason for proper comparison of the set of promotion
subscribers to avoid fatal lost of domestic income due to the associated illusion created
by the service providers.
The mobile operators are concerned about changes in users’ behavior in response
to its service offerings. Hence any development in the telecom sector is of great concern
to the mobile subscribers and the mobile operators and it is physically seen in promotion
subscriptions which models directly the needs and benefits of the promotion to different
subscribers. The comparison, estimation and engagement of these promotion subscription
become an integral part of the reaction to this effect as to enable different service
providers achieve their major objective.
The aim of this project is to develop a system to compare the set of GSM
promotion subscribers within large quantity and camouflaged GSM promotion services
providers. In particular, this study focused on the identification of promotion services
providers whose behaviour has made Nigerian mobile subscribers to appreciate more the
importance of minimizing the income used on the service. For this problem the objectives
was to compare and estimate promotion subscription while minimizing domestic income
wastage. This study was conducted with real data obtained from Nigerian
Communications Commission in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The focus is to create a sophisticated system to compare and estimate GSM
promotion subscribers of large quantity and camouflaged promotion products release on a
daily basis by GSM promotion services providers in Nigeria.
There are a lot of limitations with the current manual systems for comparing and
estimating the promotion subscription because of the huge quantity of the promotions in
circulation, the increase in different promotion packages, the rise in competition among
the service providers, the sophisticated nature of the products, the frequency of
introduction of new products and similarities in the features of the products which have
allowed each to be seen as the best, thereby confusing subscribers. However, the major
problem in the promotion subscription comparison application is to choose the suitable
matching technique for comparing the promotion subscription; hence, the motivation for
this study by using multivariate Analysis and Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple
Comparison technique.
An efficient comparison of promotion subscription application services can help
subscribers to diminish their sufferings from major revenue losses. To conquer this
problem, the subscribers to GSM Service Providers like Globacom, MTN, Airtel,
Etisalat, Visafone etc. need a system that is competent in comparing and estimating a
suitable promotion subscription. Therefore, the suggested Comparison of GSM
Promotion Subscribers Application Services which would enable the subscribers to
respond to the best and suitable GSM promotion service providers can be a tool to help
improve the existing circumstances.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this project is to create a system to compare and estimate
promotion subscriptions. The system developed should be able to:
I. Compare GSM promotion subscribers’ data.
II. Compare selected GSM promotion subscriptions using multivariate analysis and
Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple Comparison technique.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The proposed research will help in the following ways;
a. The findings will provide an overview of the usage of multivariate analysis and
Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise Multiple Comparison technique for the comparison of
GSM promotion subscribers’ application services.
b. Quickening the process of investigation for GSM promotion subscription.
c. The domestic revenue wastages due to GSM promotion products will be minimized;
hence maximizing domestic income savings for GSM subscribers, once the solution is
validated and implemented.
d. The research findings will help GSM service providers to have a constant
maintenance culture of their customer loyalty.
e. The research findings will create more awareness to deal with disguised/faked
promotion subscriptions initiators in the GSM world.
f. Suggested solutions will add more knowledge on the ways to comparing promotion
subscribers in GSM.
g. Suggested solutions can be used by the user as a recommendation in heightening the
use of comparison of GSM promotion subscribers’ application services model.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this project is to develop a system for comparing GSM promotion
subscribers. This system will focus on comparing as many GSM promotion subscribers
as possible. The system will use multivariate analysis and Scheffe’s Method of Pair Wise
Multiple Comparison techniques to compare GSM promotion subscribers and also use
real data provided by Nigerian Communications Commission in Nigeria.
1.6 Definitions of Relevant Terms used in the Research
1.6.1 GSM Promotion
The commercial activity or package aimed at encouraging or advertising the
patronage of GSM promotional products.
1.6.2 GSM Promotion Subscribers
This is the technical words for the consumers of GSM promotional products.
1.6.3 GSM Promotion Subscribers’ Data
This is statistical raw facts for the set of consumers of GSM promotional products.
1.6.4 GSM Promotion Subscribers’ Comparison
The GSM promotion subscribers’ comparison is an identified process for
examining two or more set of GSM promotion subscribers in order to discover
similarities and differences between them.
1.6.5 GSM Promotion Provider
This simply means the GSM Network Operator that is involved in rendering GSM
promotional products for the subscribers.
1.6.6 Best Promotion
This is GSM operator with the largest number of promotion subscribers in a state
or geo-political area or Nigeria, and high regard for time.



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