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The Project File Details

  • Name: CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED GATE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [514 KB]
  • Length: [73] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Microcontroller based automate controller is a project design of a system that is used in operating a gate automatically. The system opens the gate automatically when a human being or car is about to enter a compound or exit a compound. The system works by sensing the light rays from the head lamp of the vehicle. The light ray is sensed and signal is used in operating the gate. Different blocks of circuit are put together to ensure that the system works perfectly as desired. The blocks include; the power supply unit, the control unit, the sensor unit, and drive unit. The power supply unit powers on the entire system, it supplies appropriate dc signal to where it is needed. The supply unit is made up of a 12volts step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a filter capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The control unit receives signal from the sensor section to control the remaining part of the system. The control section is the logical part of the system and decides the state of the entire system depending on the signal from the sensor unit. The control section carries its operation with use of a microcontroller ATMEL89S52. The sensor unit receives signals from the headlamp of the vehicle or the human being and sends signals to indicate that a human being or car is present. This is achieved with the use a light dependent resistors. The drive unit is a DC motor which carries the gate to a specific direction as indicated by the microcontroller.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – -vi
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – -x
List of tables – – – – – – – – – – -xii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – -1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT – – – – -1
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT – – – -2
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT – – – – – – -2
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS – – – – – – – 4
1.5 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION – – – – -4
vii

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – – -6
2.1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – — – – -6
2.2 REVIEW OF SENSORS — – – – – – – -8
2.3 REVIEW OF THE ATMEL AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER – -10
2.4 REVIEW OF DOOR CONTROL – – – – – -12

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 SYSTEM ANALYSIS – – – – – – – – 14
3.1: INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – – 14
3.2: THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT: – – – – – – – – 15
3.3: THE CONTROL SECTION: – — – – – – – 16
3.4: THE SENSOR UNIT: – – – – – – – – – – – – -17
3.5: THE GATE DRIVE UNIT – – – – – – – – – 17
3.6: DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS USED IN THE DESIGN – 19
3.6.1: Voltage Regulators – – – – – – – – 19
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3.6.2: Transistors – – – – – – – – – 21
3.6.2.1: Types of Transistor – – – – – – – 22
3.6.2.2: Transistor currents – – – – – – – – 23
3.6.3: Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) – – — – – 26

3.6.4: Electromechanical Relay — – – – – – – 26
3.6.5: Diodes – — – – – – – – – – 27
3.6.6: Microcontroller unit: – – – – – – – – 30
3.6.6.1: Features of AT89S52 – – – – – – – 31
3.6.6.2: Pin description – – – – – – – – 34
3.7: SYSTEM SPECIFICATION – – – – – – – 38
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 CONSTRUCTION APPROACH, CONSTRUCTION STEPS AND
EVALUATION – – – – – – – – – – 40
4.1 CONSTRUCTION APPROACH – – – – – – 40
4.2 CONSTRUCTION – – – — – – – – 41
ix

4.2.1 COMPONENT TESTING – – – – – – – 42
4.2.2 COMPONENT PLACING – – – – – – – 42
4.2.3 SOLDERING – – – – – – – – – 42
4.2.4 SYSTEM TESTING – – – – – – – – 43
4.2.5 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS – — – – – 43
4.3 TESTING EQUIPMENT – – – – – – – – 44
4.4 TESTING METHOD – — – – – – – – 44
4.4.1 RESISTORS: – – – – – – – – – 44
4.4.2 CAPACITORS: – – – – – — – – – 44
4.4.3 TRANSISTORS: – – – – – — – – – 44
4.5 SYSTEM FLOWCHART – – – – – – – – 46
4.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: – – – – – – – – 47
4.6.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXPLANATION – – – 48
4.7 EVALUATION – – – – – – – – – 48
CHAPTER FIVE
x

5.0 TEST RESULT, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION – -52
5.1 SYSTEM TESTING – – – – – – – – 52
5.2 SUMMARY – – – – – – – – – – 52
5.3 RECOMMENDATION – – – — – – – – 54
5.4 CONCLUSION – — – – – – – – – 54
REFERENCES – – — – – – – – – – 56
APPENDIX – – – – – – – – – – 58

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
In the past, many systems that are designed by man are normally
operated manually. This mode of operation is accompanied with many
defects or disadvantages. Some of the disadvantages involve stress
undergone by the operator; the operator is also exposed to health hazards
when carrying out his or her duties. These health hazards might be in terms
of electrocution, skin burn or bruises.
To overcome the above mentioned disadvantages that are
associated with manual operation of systems, the recent systems are
designed with mechanisms that enable them to carry out the required
operations automatically. To this effect, the system carries out the required
operation by them. The mechanism of the system can only be altered
during servicing of the machine. With automatic operation of systems, the
stress involved with handling the systems are reduced drastically.
The automatic gate control system is one of the systems that operate
automatically. The system simply detects the presence of object at the front
of the gate and then, opens the doors of the gate automatically. It
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incorporates sensors that are mounted at strategic positions and which has
the capability of detecting objects. These systems are used in public offices
where people often make use of the doors.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The main aim of the design is to practically obtain a system that
opens and closes a given gate automatically, when there is presence of
cars or persons. The system is designed in such a way that it has sensors
that senses the presence of people.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The design and implementation of microcontroller based automatic gate
controller utilizes the characteristic operation of both passive and active
electronic components such as resistors, capacitors and integrated circuits.
The circuit is designed in a prototype forms and it is only meant for indoor
demonstration of how the system works. The system also uses a
programmable integrated circuit in its control unit. Meanwhile, this project,
microcontroller based automatic gate control has sub units such as:
Power supply unit
The control section
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The gate drive section
The sensor unit

Fig: 1.1. The block diagram of microcontroller based automatic gate
control

THE GATE DRIVE SECTION
THE CONTROL SECTION
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
THE SENSOR UNIT
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1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Voltage regulation: this is simply, the control of voltage as needed
by the design. Voltage regulation ensures that a specific and steady
voltage supply is provided for the system operation.
Electromagnetic switch: this is the contact making that exists
between terminal of electronic components. These switches are
carried through a process known as electromagnetic induction.
Examples of devices that can perform this action is the relay.
Erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM): this is a
type of memory device which can be programmed. The device also
has program erasing ability if it is to be reprogrammed.
1.5 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
Five chapters were covered in the course of design and development
of this project. The chapters and their contents are as follows:
Chapter one is the introductory chapter that gives the background of the
project, aim and objective, the scope and organization of the project.
Chapter Two handles the literature review; information on previous work
relevant to the topic.
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In chapter three, I discussed the practical system analysis of the project.
Also discussed is the requirement analysis, which is all the information,
gathered from a wide research on microcontroller over/under voltage
protective system.
Chapter four deals with the design procedure, construction steps,
packaging and cost of components.
Chapter five contains the test result, summary, conclusion and
recommendations for further work

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