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Download the complete Electrical and Electronics project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED T-JUNCTION TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

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The Project File Details

  • Name: CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED T-JUNCTION TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1,043 KB]
  • Length: [75] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

T-junction traffic light controller is such a device that will play a significant role in controlling traffic at junctions, to ease the expected increased rush at such junctions and reduce to minimum disorderliness that may arise, as well as allowing the pedestrians a right of the way at intervals rather than being struck down when in a hurry to cross the roads. Such an electrical system with a touch of electronics that control the flow of traffic in a pre-determined sequential pattern at a junction, has its diagram comprising of different components. The power supply unit provides the control unit with specified voltage from primary source. The pulse generator consisting of a timer generates pulse for the system. The clock or counter moderates the signal that enters the decoding logic system. The display unit of each stand consists of led, the first is red in colour, the second is amber in colour and the last is green in colour.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – -i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – – -x
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Objective of the Project – – – – – – – – -3
1.3 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – -3
1.4 Project Report Organization – – – – – – – -3

viii

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – -5
2.2 Pre-Emption And Priority – – – – – – – -8
2.3 Special Provisions – – – – – – – – -10
2.4 Technology- – – – – – – – – – -11
2.5 Control And Co-Ordination- – – – – – – -14
2.6 Design Layout And Operation Site- – – – – – -14
CHAPTER THREE
DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS
3.1 The Power Supply – – – – – – – – -15
3.2 The Voltage Regulator – – – – – – – – -16
3.3 Crystal Oscillator – – – – – – – – – -21
3.4 Paper Capacitor- – – – – – – – – -26
3.5 The Microcontroller- – – – – – – – -27
3.6 System Flow Diagram- – – – – – – – -33
ix

3.7 Light Indicator Stage- – – – – – – – -35
3.8 Transistors- – – – – – – – – – -35
3.9 Resistors- – – – – – – – – – -41
3.10 Bridge Rectifier- – – – – – – – – -44
3.11 Electrolytic Capacitor- – – – – – – – -45
3.12 Step Down Transformer- – – – – – – -48
3.13 Seven Segment Display- – – – – – – – -49
CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL UNITS
4.1 The Control Unit – – – – – – – – – -55
4.2 System Analysis – – – – – – – – -56
4.3 Choice Of Counter – – – – – – – – -56
4.4 The Interface Unit- – – – – – – – -57
4.5 Test And Result – – – – – – – – – -58
4.6 Observation – – – – – – – – – -58
4.7 Packaging- – – – – – – – – – -59
x

4.8 Bill Of Engineering Measurement And Evaluation – – – -60
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion — – – – – – – – – -63
5.2 Recommendations- – – – – – – – -63
5.3 Suggestions For Further Research- – – – – – -64
References- – – – – – – – – – -65

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The traffic on our roads, especially intra-city traffic due to increasing number of cars
grow by the day and unless adequate steps are taken to control the situation, we shall
soon meet with circumstances we do not bargain for. That the innumerable traffic
junctions in the country by far out-number the staff strength of the traffic wardens
available and that the traffic wardens even where they are enough to control all the
junctions cannot do so throughout the day is not in doubt. Traffic control at
T.junctions or elsewhere ensures orderliness of movements of vehicles, goods and
pedestrians while its absence strongly indicates chaos and most at times leads to
accidents.
In the light of the above, it is imperative to recognize the need to compliment the
physical exhausting efforts of the traffic wardens. In doing so, steps to be taken
should assume permanence in nature rather than any ad-hoc exercise. Such is the
role expected to be played by an installed operational road junction traffic controller.
This project –DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A THREE WAY JUNCTION
TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER is such a device that will play significant role in
controlling traffic at junctions to ease the expected increased rush at such junctions
and reduce to minimum such disorderliness that may arise as well as allowing the
2

pedestrians a right of the way at intervals rather than being struck down when in a
hurry to cross the roads.
Such an electrical system with a touch of electronics that controls the flow of traffic
in a pre-determine sequential pattern at a junction has its diagram below with blocks
representing distinct units.[1]

Fig 1.1: Traffic Light Control System

The power supply unit provides the control unit with specified dc voltage from
primary source, which is a 240v, 50Hz ac supply, from public power system. The
pulse generator containing a timer generates pulse for the system. The clock or
counter moderates the signal that enters the decoding logic system.
The display unit of each stand consists of three bulbs Red in colour showing STOP,
three bulbs Amber in colour showing GET READY and three bulbs Green in colour
showing MOVE.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
AC Source
Dc Power Supply
Pulse Generator Counter Decoder
Lamp Display
3

The main objective of the study includes:
5 To investigate the practicality of the theoretical knowledge about these
components to be used.
6 To experiment on the compatibility of the working relation between
components to be used.
7 To investigate the extent to which the design and construction of the control
unit can be useful to mankind.
8 To investigate the immediate usefulness of the control system as
complimentary to traffic wardens.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is to enlighten all electronics students on the use of
microcontroller base traffic light (3-ways) and timer system in T-junction. On the
practical usage it is limited to the laboratory used for reference purpose. The larger
application of this project work is found in most of our mega cities like Abuja, Lagos,
Calabar, Enugu etc, to control and manage heavy traffic congestion.
1.4 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
This report is structured to follow the history and origin of traffic light system all
through the design and implementation phase. The report takes into account the step
by-step process followed in order to arrive at the final design.
4

Chapter one of this report introduces the concept of the Traffic light system and its
objectives. Chapter two centers on the literature review, the origin and history of
Traffic light systems and its basic functionality. Chapter Three explains the
components which make up the Traffic light system and their basic
functionalities/mode of operation. Chapter Four discusses the design procedure,
construction, steps and packaging.
Chapter five handles the tests and results as well as conclusion and recommendation.

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