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The Project File Details

  • Name: CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER FOR BOTH OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND TANKS
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [597 KB]
  • Length: [70] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Automatic water level controller for both overhead and underground tank is designed to monitor the level of water in a tank. It displays the level of water and when it is at the lowest level; a pump is activated automatically to refill the tank. When the tank is filled to its maximum capacity, the pump is automatically de-energized. Several circuits are put together to ensure proper working of this design, and the block diagram includes the supply unit, the micro-processor unit, the sensor unit, the display unit and the pump drives unit. The power unit is responsible for turning on the entire circuit. Some components are used to set up power unit and they include; a 15v step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a smoothening capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The microprocessor (AT89S50) controls virtually all the actions carried out in this design. (AT89S50) is used in the design. The sensor unit is responsible for sensing the level of water and transfer the current position of water to the microprocessor. The display unit in the circuit is use to physically show the current position of water in the tank, the properties of seven segment display are been used.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page- – – – – – – – – – – – -i
Title page – – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – –v
Table of content – – – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of figure – – – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of table – – – – – – – – – – – -x
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION- – – – – – – – – – -1
1.1 background – – – – – – – – – – -1
1.2 aims and objective – – – – – – – – – -2
1.3 scope of the study- – – – – – – – – -3
1.4 constrains- – – – – – – – – – – -3
1.5 limitations of the project- – – – – – – – -4
1.6 block diagram- – – – – – – – – – -4
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1.7 project report organization- – – – – – – – -5
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 review- – – – – – – – – – – -6
2.1 sensors- – – – – – – – – – – -7
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.00 Project block diagram- – – – – – – – -11
3.01 fluid level detector – – – – – – – – – -11
3.02 system analysis – – – – – – – – – – -12
3.03 step-down transformer- – – – – – – – -12
3.04 transformer circuit representation- – – – – – – -13
3.05 diodes- – – – – – – – – – – -13
3.06 LED- – – – – – – – – – – – -15
3.07 Bridge rectifier- – – – – – – – – – -17
3.08 Voltage regulators- – – – – – – – – -18
3.09 Resistors- – – – – – – – – – – -19
3.10 Transistors- – – – – – – – – – -22
3.11 Relays- – – – – – – – – – – -24
3.12 Piezo electric buzzer- – – – – – – – – -25
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3.13 Hardware component- – – – – – – – – -26
3.14 Power supply unite- – – – – – – – – -27
3.15 Display unite- – – – – – – – – – -27
3.16 Input interface design- – – – – – – – – -28
3.17 Pump control segment- – – – – – – – -29
3.18 Input interface design – – – – – – – – -30
3.19 Sensor unit- – – – – – – – – – -30
3.20 Micro-processor unit – – – – – – – – – -31

CHAPTER FOUR
4.01 Overview of the project- – – – – – – 38
4.02 Software design- – – – – – – – – 40
4.03 Software development – – – – – – – 40
4.04 Translator- – – – – – – – – – 41
4.05 Linker/loader- – – – – – – – – 42
4.06 Debugging- – – – – – – – – – 43
4.07 Development process- – – – – – – – 43
4.08 System control program steps- – – – – – 44
4.09 Program- – – – – – – – – – 45
CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM TESTING AND IMPLIMENTATION
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Test plan and test data- – – – – – – – – -50
5.00 Component test- – – – – – – – – -49
5.01 System test- – – – – – – – – -50
5.02 Transformer test – – – – – – – – -50
5.03 Other test- – – – – – – – – – -51
5.04 Experimented value vs. actual values- – – – – -51
5.05 Performance evaluation- – – – – – – -52
5.06 Packaging- – – – – – – – – – 54
5.07 Bill of engineering measurement and evaluation- – – 53
5.08 conclusions- – – – – – – – – – 54
5.09 Problem encountered – – – – – – – -55
5.10 Recommendations- – – – – – – – -56
5.11 REFFERENCE– – – – – – – – – -57

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND
The project “automatic water level control with an automatic pump
control system” is design to monitor the level of liquid in the tank. The
system has an automatic pumping system attached to it so as to refill
the tank once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while offing the
pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of
available water resource in many reason of the word is now a dominant
issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient
use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management. Water is
commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption.
Therefore, efficient use and water monitoring are potential constraint for
home or office water management system. Moreover, the common
method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed
pump at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is
reached in the water tank. This water level control, controls monitor and
maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the
continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to
switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and
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prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control
systems are widely used for monitoring of liquid levels in reservoirs,
silos. Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is
actually being reached with disbursement linked to sensing and
automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based
automated water level sensing and controlling or using 555 timer IC.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to
accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with automatic
control system. In this project sensors are place at different level of the
tank and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the
level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives
are
1. to design an automatic water monitoring system
2. to incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and
the machine
3. to prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from
getting bad
4. to avoid wastage of water
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5. since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level
control saves energy

1.2 JUSTIFICATION
Automatic water level monitor came into existence because of human
error and inconsistence that is associated with manually operated water
pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is
manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and
this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know
that the water level has drop so low until the tank is completely empty.
This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an
automatic water level control and automatic pump short down.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The project was design to automatically control the pump which ensures
constant reserve of water in the reservoir. The scope of the design was
keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary
complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not
have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the
detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability
material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a
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well built automatic water pump was use d to achieve this aim, the
automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the tank

1.4 CONSTRAINS
The biggest setback experience during the course of this project is
difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of
material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like
pump and buffer for programming

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
It is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric
pump and cannot be use to control industrial water pump above 5 amps

BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW
This project report writing is written is design in such a way that each
chapter is related to the next as shown below

FIG 1.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROL WITH PUMP

POWER SUPPLY UNIT
CONTROL UNIT
DISPLAY UNIT
INPUT UNIT
CONTROL UNITE
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1.6 PROJECT RESPORT ORGANISATION
The organization of this project report is well detailed and vast in its
coverage it covers all the activities encountered during the research
work. The first chapter of this work took care of the introduction, aims
and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization.
Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on
description of system and some of the component used were emphasized
chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation,
construction, testing and packaging of the pump. Chapter five is all about
the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the
project.

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