This project is aimed at producing a solar charger controller which help to improve the steady power supply in department of science laboratory technology IMT Enugu the smart charge controller is designed, so that the battery does not get over charged thereby ensuring no reduction of durability of the battery. This kind of system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. After charged, detection safety can be achieved by designed logic system in the charger which will automatically disconnect or cut off power to the battery when it is fully charged is a reverse process they can get charged in a very short time period considering the intensity of sunlight. A photovoltaic system is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaic. Now-a-days it is vastly used to reduce the dependency on traditional power sources. In this study, a modified photovoltaic system will be proposed to increase the use of solar energy. A control system will be designed to control the power system. It is envisioned that this system will reduce the consumption of grid power, which can be accumulated for cost minimization and power optimization.
1.1 Background of the Study
The solar charger controller (SCC) its function is to regulate the power into a rechargeable battery. Its features include potentiometer for the float voltage adjustment, an equalize function for periodic overcharging and automatic temperature compensation for better charging over a range of temperature (Brown, 2010).
Solar energy is radiation produced by nuclear fusion reaction deep in the sun’s core. The sun provides almost all the heat and light the earth receives and therefore sustain every living being. Nigeria being a country face with the problem of incessant power fluctuation needs solar energy as an alternative source of power supply. Solar energy can be converted to electricity directly by solar home system (SHS). The flow of converted electricity from photovoltaic is regulated by charge controller. The smart charge controller is capable of decreasing the battery charging time making it possible to charge more than one battery at charge time and getting the desired current form the photovoltaic panel (James et al, 2006).
First photovoltaic (PV) solar panels have been designed and used mainly in space technology, as the production costs of such panels were very high. As the time passes, the photovoltaic cells can be produced cheaper and cheaper and their efficiency is rising. This is also a reason why they are being used much more frequently and it is not rare to see them on the rooftops any more. Photovoltaic solar systems can be divided into two basic categories – grid connected and off-grid solar systems. The grid connected systems feed the electricity produced by solar panels to the grid using an inverter. When the electricity is needed during night or periods with little sunlight, the energy is taken back from grid. In off-grid systems, the excess electricity is usually stored in batteries during the day and batteries are used to power the appliances in times when photovoltaic panels do not produce enough energy. Solar charge controllers play an important part in isolated solar systems. Their goal is to ensure the batteries are working in optimal conditions, mainly to prevent overcharging (by disconnecting solar panel when batteries are full) and too deep discharge (by disconnecting the load when necessary).
Moreover our poverty stricken rural dwellers faces the toughest energy crisis. Therefore solar energy popular as one of the best renewable energy sources will help to improve the problem of power supply in the rural area thereby promoting development (Dunlap et al, 2006).
1.2 The Aim of the Study
To construct a solar charge controller.
1.3 Objective of the Study
To improve the power supply in the Department of science and laboratory Technology IMT Enugu.
– The goal of the circuit design was to make a charge controller with high efficiency and reliability.
– To create a charge control that will overcome the issue of false detection while protecting the battery from repetitive overcharge.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
Rural areas do not have power supply which bring about migration to urban area.
It increase avarices in urban area since rural dweller migrate to urban.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It will reduce avarice because the abled bodied men will now enjoy constant power supply which will make them to stay in rural area and help in production of agricultural product.
The energy infrastructure of Enugu is quite low, insufficient and inappropriately managed. The per capita energy consumption of our country is one of the lowest in the world which is 321 kWH. Noncommercial energy sources such as wood fuel, animal waste and crop residues are estimated to account for over half of the country’s energy consumption. Enugu has small oil and coal reserves, but we have large natural gas resources. Commercial energy consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%), followed by oil, hydropower and coal.
Electricity is the most dominating source of power for most of the country’s economic activities. Nigeria’s installed electric capacity was 12339 MW in January, 2016. Only three-fourth of which is considered to be ‘available’. Only 62% of the population access electricity with a per capita availability of 321 kWh per annum. The crisis that our country face while producing electricity include administrational corruption, high system losses, procrastination of the process of establishing new plants, low plant efficiencies, eccentric power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and inadequacy of funds for power plant maintenance. That’s how our countries generation plants have been incapable of meeting system demand over past decade. According to official estimates the country generates 5600-6350 MW of electricity against a daily need of 7500 MW in average. Solar energy is an effective solution since its economical and it provides clean energy in terms of pollution and health issues.
Considering all these facts we are motivated to do this project as it will be beneficiary in every ways for the local people. Through effective maintenance our people can possibly get rid of the electricity crisis.
- Practically our efficiency should come 30w to 34w but we did not get that because of our components. Our components are not ideal and for that we did not get our desired output.
- If panel voltage is less than 11V, it will not work that much.
- Our main focusing point was to increase efficiency. To increase efficiency, our costing becomes slightly low.
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