Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

NDIOK, ATIM EMMANUEL

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: CROSS BORDER CRIMES IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY POLICING
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [906 KB]
  • Length: [70] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research work was undertaken to examine the role of community policing in controlling Cross Border Crimes. These crimes such as human trafficking, smuggling of Small Arms and Light Weapons and trafficking in narcotises have effects on the security of affected counties like Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Togo. Dealing with these problems has become a source of major concern to the states to have the need to come together to control these crime. The work was intended to achieve the following objectives: To identify cross border crimes in Nigeria; to critically examine the effect of cross border crimes on the security of Nigeria; To assess the roles of community policing in controlling cross border crimes; To identify the strategies of community policing in curbing border crimes and to identify the problems of community policing in controlling cross border crimes. The scope of the study was limited to the overall objectives, which was from 2004- 2009 and three border crimes were examined: human trafficking, trafficking in narcotizes and smuggling of SALWs. The research was a descriptive research and Quantitative research design was used for this research. Relevant data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires were the main primary data instrument employed while data from various relevant publications constituted the sources of secondary data. Upon the analysis of data, the following conclusions were drawn; that community policing, even though face with challenges, police and community still come together to control cross border crimes. It was recommended that service orientation should be encourage, community partnership and public education should be implemented, mini station should be put in place in an assessable areas, government should encourage neighborhood watch, provides funds for the community policing. Finally, there was an implementation strategy which is put in place at a particular period of time for government to ensure that the strategies are followed accordingly.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPORVAL PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………….……………………..……………………..………………….viii
CHAPTER ONE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM …………………………………………………………………. 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………………………………… 5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ……………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES …………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………….. 6
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………………………………… 7
1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………… 7
1.10 DEFINITON OF TERMS ……………………………………………………………………………… 7
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.1. CROSS BORDER CRIMES …………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.2 COMMUNITY POLICING …………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.3 HUMAN TRAFFICKING ……………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.4 SUMGGLING OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS (SALW) …………….. 15
2.5 TRAFFICKING AND SMUGGLING IN NARCOTISES …………………………………. 18
2.6 ROLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING IN CURBING CROSS BORDER CRIMES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK …………………………………………………………………… 22
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2.2.1 NORMATIVE SPONSORSHIP THEORY…………………………………………………………..22
2.2.2 BROKEN WINDOW THEORY……………………………………………………….23
CHAPTER THREE ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………….. 26
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN …………………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.2 SAMPLE POPULATION ……………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE ……………………………………………………. 26
3.4 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION ……………………………………………………………. 27
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION ………………………………………………….. 27
3.6 INSTRUMENT OF ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………….. 28
CHAPTER FOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………. 29
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION OF THE BIO- DATA ……………………………………………… 29
4.2 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS ………………………………………………………………………… 32
4.3 DISCUSSIONS OF FINDING ………………………………………………………………………….. 42
4.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS …………………………………………………………………………….. 42
CHAPTER FIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS OF STRATEGIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.1 CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………………….. 46
5.3 IMPLEMENTATIONS OF STRATEGIES ……………………………………………………… 46
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
States boundaries, especially between different sovereign nations are known for their dispositions to facilitate crimes (Whitmore B, 1994). These sovereign states boundaries function as separators, rather than integrators. The familiar phenomena of parallel and characteristically contrastive legal system and law enforcement procedures subsisting on the different sides not only tend to criminalize innocent cross borders and local communities, but also they render administration and policing challenges. Hence, cross border crime is an international phenomenon. Cross border crimes have constituted international threats to national security, because they affect economic security and lead to underdevelopment.
Available literatures on cross border crimes shows that most states are aware of cross border crimes and its effects on their nation. For instance, (Maetens, 2007) argued that the problems of cross border crimes – human trafficking, trafficking in Small and Light weapons and others are factors that make the Caribbean countries and their economies most vulnerable. The seriousness of these problems has caused the government of this region to explore innovative policy responses at both national and international level to come out with approaches to address crimes (Maetens Frank, 2007).
Cross border crimes which have been present in Nigeria became more pronounced towards the end of the 19th century. Although without much empirical evidence, Nigerian criminals are counted among top ranking global syndicates (Bayard James, 1999). Even if the global ranking could be debatable, there is evidence that Nigeria has been witnessing a spate of unprecedented crime waves in general and in cross border crimes in particular. For
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example, the arrest of a top Nigerian professional, a pilot of the Nigerian Airways was arrested for human trafficking while on international flight to the United States. Also, in South Africa, a Nigerian syndicate group had been arrested for luring an American to South Africa with a mouth-watering business deal only to kidnap him and demand ransom on arrival (Barkindo, 2007).
The dilemmas that Nigeria faces with insecurities call for critical investigation of border entry points whether they are performing their strategic functions (Willie, 2008). Nigeria has over the years engaged in the deportation of some illegal Aliens back to their country and even engaged in the closure and reopening of borders on the ground of trying to protect national security. The National Security of Nigeria have been constantly threatened by activities of cross border crimes, some Nigerians, involving the smuggling of petroleum products and other essential commodities like drugs, beverages, which constitute economic threat to Nigerian economy. Similarly, the dominance of substandard goods, fake drugs and prohibited items in local markets call to question the very essence and effectiveness of government fiscal policies and the implementation process involving chains of security agencies at our national border.
Nigeria, despite avalanches of insecurities must remain open to movement of people, goods and services if they are to prosper. At the same time, openness without credible controls makes it possible for emerging threats of cross border crimes including terrorism to strive (Willie, 2008).
The security situations in state boundaries have become increasingly worrisome, most especially in the wake of cross border crimes. This is added to the more familiar manifestations, such as smuggling as a result of the adverse effects of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of 1986 which forced an increase in price of virtually every
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commodity in Nigeria (Anthony A., 1999). Contrabands also witnessed unprecedented upsurge in scale and dimensions. Massive and ever expanding re- exportation of officially banned goods into Nigeria, such as second hand vehicles, clothing and processed Asian rice. In the other direction, large scale illegal exportation of petroleum and petroleum products, cross border passengers of small arms and light weapons as well as narcotics, are equally posing threats to national security.
Indeed, the incidence of cross border crimes has ruffled many features in recent times. Aside from their threat to political and socio- economic health of Nigeria and the stable existence of the sub-region, cross border crimes have put question marks on law enforcement agencies. This situation in our borderlands has become unbearable, consequently, the Federal Government of Nigeria was forced to close down the Western border (Nigeria Benin) for a week- August 9th to August 15th, 2013 (Eigege, E.Y. (2006). In the same manner, it also occasioned a special resolution of the Senate sponsored by members from the affected constituencies in the Northeast, calling on the presidency to mount similar diplomatic pressure on Chad, Cameroon and Niger, widely believed to provide asylum for the miscreant (Eigege, E.Y. 2006).
Therefore on April 27, 2004, the Nigerian police force (NPF) in the context of a special national summit on crimes in Abuja launched its community policing programme as its operational initiatives for combating the ever increasing waves in international boundaries (Julius Ihonvbere, 2011).
Mexico, has also adopted community policing in some of its states in recent times, and it too has a history of decentralised police structures (albeit this decentralisation in policing is shaped by the organisation of the country as a federation made up of 32 federative entities). However, this is a country in the midst of a worsening security crisis and with an endemic and widespread problem of serious and organized crime (Shirk, 2011).
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The majority of Mexicans have little confidence in the police (only around 30% are confident in the police according to the World Values Survey 2005-2008), and 30% are afraid of victimisation or maltreatment by the police (CIDE, 2010). In 2010 the number of recorded homicides was the highest ever in its modern history (more than 15,000 deaths, mostly attributed directly to organised crime, according to the Federal Government, 2010).
In Mexico, the community policing was formulated to control crimes at the international boundaries. The border communities come together in order to eradicate crimes. Community policing is one of the most significant developments in policing and the notion has been widely discussed and applied around the world, for example, in Nigeria and Cameroon, where cross border crimes has been very rampant. These two countries had to come together to form a strategy with the communities in order to eradicate the crimes associated with their territory (Rosenbaum, D. 1987).
The movement towards community policing has gained momentum in recent years as police and community leaders search for more effective ways to promote public safety and to enhance the quality of life in their neighbourhoods. Community policing strategies vary depending on the needs and responses of the community are involved.
The problems of the community police such as poor community relations, corruption and extortion, lack of proper resource management, inadequate funding, poor remuneration, inadequate arms and ammunitions, lack of integrity, police brutality and harassment of innocent citizens, are such that makes it easy for the actors to carry out crimes such as Human trafficking, Smuggling in Small Arms and Light Weapons, drugs trafficking, and many other cross border crimes in Nigeria. Thus, the police together with the communities come together in order to find strategies on how to control these crimes.
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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Cross border crimes represent a number of notorious criminal activities carried out by individuals and organized groups across international boundaries for political and economic benefits. These crimes such as human trafficking, smuggling of Small Arms and Light Weapons and trafficking in narcotises have effects on the security of affected counties like Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Togo. Dealing with these problems has become a source of major concern to the states to hence the need to come together to control these crimes. It is against this backdrop that this study tries to examine the roles of community policing in curbing cross border crimes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to uncover the roles of community policing in controlling cross border crimes. The specific objectives are:
1. To identify cross border crimes in Nigeria.
2. To critically examine the effect of cross border crimes on the security of Nigeria.
3. To assess the roles of community policing in controlling cross border crimes.
4. To identify the strategies of community policing in curbing border crimes.
5. To identify the problems of community policing in controlling cross border crimes.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Which are the cross border crimes that affect Nigeria?
2. What are the effects of these crimes on the security of Nigeria?
3. What role does community policing play in controlling cross border crimes?
4. What are the strategies of community policing for curbing border crimes?
5. What are the problems of community policing in controlling cross border crimes?
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1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. H1: there are cross border crimes in Nigeria.
H0: there are no cross border crimes in Nigeria.
2. H1: there are effects of cross border crimes on the security of Nigeria.
H0: there are no effects of cross border crimes on the security of Nigeria.
3. H1: community policing plays a role in controlling cross border crimes
H0: community policing does not play a role in controlling cross border crimes.
4. H1: there are strategies of community policing for curbing border crimes.
H0: there are no strategies for community policing in curbing cross border crimes.
5. H1: community policing have challenges.
H0: community policing does have any challenges.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is of importance as it updates previous study on cross border crimes, filling some gaps discovered in literature on the topic. This study creates awareness on the strategies of community policing for curbing cross border crimes. It will update individuals on the roles of community policing in controlling border crimes. It will also serves as reference material for future researchers on cross border crimes issues. It will help the government in formulating policies for the police in combating cross border crimes.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work focuses on three cross border crimes in Nigeria: human trafficking, smuggling in Small Arms and Light Weapons and Trafficking in narcotises as well as the roles of community policing in curbing cross border crimes. The study covers the period between 2009- 2014. This period marked the era in which cross border crimes grew in intensity and posed a great threat to national security.
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1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was primarily limited by its small sample size.the sample was limited to one hundred and fifty persons. An ealier start in data collection would have increased the time needed to survery more participants. More contact betweem the researcher and the target would have increased paticipation. The time period was also limited to five years, additional time period would have given the researcher the opportunity to discover cross border crimes during that period.
1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
This research work was organized and presented in five chapters, with the general introduction constituting the first chapter, chapter two is literature review, and chapter three is research methodology. Chapter four is data presentation and analysis while chapter five is summary of findings, conclusion and necessary recommendations.
1.10 DEFINITON OF TERMS
 Cross border crime: it represents a number of illegal and notorious activities carried out by individuals and groups across international boundaries, either for financial, political and economic benefits.
 Crime: it is activity that does not recognised or even respects sovereignty or territorial boundaries.
 Community policing: community policing can be defined as bringing policing closer to citizens whose lives and property are supposed to be protected.
 Human trafficking: consisting of an action of recruitment, transportation, transfer and harbouring of persons by means of threats of force, coercion for the purpose of exploitation which includes the prostitution of others, forced labour.
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 Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW): it is limited to things like revolver, pistols, shot guns, carbines light machine guns and hard grenade.
 Smuggling and trafficking of drugs: it consist of an action and an illegal smuggling of drugs like cocaine into a county.

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