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ABSTRACT

Dermatoglyphics refers to the formation of naturally occurring ridges on certain parts of the body such as palms, fingers, soles and toes.Hirsutism is the occurrence of excessive body hair in female on parts of the body where hair is normally minimal or absent, such as face, chin and chest. 2D:4D is the ratio between the length of the 2nd (index finger) and the 4th (ring finger) which varies due to exposure to androgen. It is sexually dimorphic, as it has a lower value in males as compared to females. Palmar hyperhidrosis is also known as sweaty hands, it is a condition which involves excessive eccrine sweating in the palm. ATD angle is formed by the lines drawn from the digital tri-radius „a‟ to the axial tri-radius „t‟ and from this tri-radius to the digital tri-radius „d‟. Study of the distribution of the Dermatoglyphic pattern, 2D:4D,hirsutism and palmar hyperhidrosis among selected dialects of Igala ethnic group was done in order to see their association with other anthropometric variables. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 602 subjects participated in this study, 322 females and 280 males, which were secondary school students between the age range of 13-19years. The subjects fingerprint pattern was obtained by allowing them place the tip of each finger on the stamp pad, which was then imprinted on the questionnaire. The palm print patterns were obtained with the digital camera (TECNO DP7CPRO). The palm print pattern obtained was then printed out and the ATD triangle was measured at the point „t‟ using a protractor. The ridges were also counted for each digit with the aid of hand lens, from the core to the delta. The degree of hirsutism was determined by modified FerrimanGallway (F&G score).The digit length was measured on the ventral surface of the hand from the basal crease of the finger up to the tip and the occurence of palmer hyperhidrosis was determined in the subjects using the subjective method, the degree of sweating was observed and the subjects were also asked if they sweat on their palm and how often. The study showed that the overall mean age of the subjects was 16.65± 1.75 years. Males have higher occurrence of arch for the I, II, and V right digits while females had more occurrence of arch for the II and IV right digits. Females have more occurrence of loop for the I, II and V right digits while males had higher occurrence of loop for the III and IV right digits, Females have the higher occurrence for whorl in all digits except the III right digit. There was statistical significance for the II, III and V right digits (p<0.05).Males have higher occurrence of arch for all fingers on the left except the index finger, females have higher occurrence for loop for all fingers except the left thumb. Females also showed higher occurrence of whorl finger print patterns in all fingers except the left ring finger, and there was statistically significant difference for II, III, IV and V fingers (p = 0.001) except for the left thumb where p= 0.155. The result revealed that females with palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of arch for the II, III, and IV digits while females without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of arch for the I and IV digit. Females without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of loop for all digits except the thumb and little fingers. Females with palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of whorl finger print pattern on the I and V digits while females without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of whorl for the III and IV digits. There was statistical significant for the III, IV and V fingers (P<0.05). Females without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher arch finger print pattern for I, IV and V digits while females with palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of arch for II, and III. Females with palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of loop finger print pattern for the II, IV and V digits while females without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of loop for the I and III. Whorl finger print pattern have higher occurrence in females with palmer hyperhidrosis for the I and III digits while it was higher in females without palmer hyperhidrosis for the II and IV digits. Male subjects with palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of arch for all fingers except the little finger, loop finger print pattern was higher in males with palmer
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hyperhidrosis for the I, II and V fingers while those without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of loop for the III and IV fingers. Males without palmer hyperhidrosis have higher occurrence of whorl as compared to those with palmer hyperhidrosis. There was statistically significant for the middle finger (P< 0.05). Male subjects with palmer hyperhidrosis have more arch finger print pattern for all fingers. Loop finger print pattern was higher in subjects with palmer hyperhidrosis for the I, II and IV fingers, while those without palmer hyperhidrosis had higher loop for the II and V fingers. Males without palmer hyperhidrosis had higher occurrence of whorl for the I, II and IV fingers while those with palmer hyperhidrosis had more occurrence of whorl for the III and V fingers. The difference was statistically significant for the left index and middle fingers (P<0.05) but was not statistically significant for the left thumb, ring and little fingers (P>0.05).Females from Omala have the highest occurrence of hirsutism (50%) while females from Igalamela have the lowest occurrence of hirsutism (17%). The association was statistically significant (P< 0.05). Females have higher right and left 2D:4D as compared to males, this is due to the fact the estrogen in females tends to increase the length of the index finger while the testosterone in males tends to reduce the length of the index finger. The right 2D:4D was higher than the left 2D:4D in both males and females.The right and left ATD angles were higher in females than in males, with the right ATD been higher than the left ATD in both males and females, this was statistically significant (p<0.05).The result revealed that mean value for the left total ridge counts was higher than the right total ridge count in both males and females. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001).In conclusion females have higher 2D:4D, ATD angle, loop and whorl finger print patterns as compared to males. Male subjects have higher occurrence of arch finger print pattern and right and left total right counts as compared to females. Hirsutism was more prevalent in females from Omala while palmer hyperhidrosis was most prevalent in subject from Idah dialect

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Cover Page…………………………………………………………………………………i
Fly page……………………………………………………………………………………ii
Title page…………………………………………………………………………………..iii
Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………iv
Certification…………………………………………………………………………………v
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………vi
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………….vii Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………….viii
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………….xii
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………xiv
List of Plates………………………………………………………………………………..xv
List of Appendices…………………………………………………………………………xvi
List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………xvii
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….xviii
1.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background of theStudy………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem……………………………………………………….6
1.3 Justification of the Study……………………………………………………………….7
1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study……………………………………………………………7
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1.4.1 Aim of the study………………………………………………………………………7
1.4.2 Objectives of the study ……………………………………………………………….7
1.5 Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………..8
1.6 Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………..…………..8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………………….9
2.1. Development of Epidermal Ridges…………………………………………………..9
2.2 Patterns of Finger Prints………………………………………………………………9
2.3 PALM PRINT PATTERNS………………………………………………………….11
2.3.1 Overview of palm print pattern………………………………………………………..11
2.3.2 History of palm prints……………………………………………………………….12
2.3.3 Palmar regions………………………………………………………………………..12
2.3.4 Applications of the palm print……………………………………………………….17
2.3.5 Dermatoglyphics in health……………………………………………………………19
2.3.6 Dermatoglyphics in clinical medicine………………………………………………..20
2.4 Hirsutism………………………………………………………………………………23
2.4.1 Symptoms…………………………………………………………………………….23
2.4.2 Causes…………………………………………………………………………………..24
2.4.3 Prevalence…………………………………………………………………………….24
2.4.4 Pathophysiology of hirsutism……………………………………………26
2.4.5 Diagnosis of hirsutism…………………………………………………………………26
2.5 2D:4D……………………………………………………………………………………33
2.5.1 Geographical and ethnic variation of 2D:4D………………………………………….35
2.5.2 Correlation between digit ratios and various human trait…………………………….35
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2.5.3 Measurements of digit ratio…………………………………………………………………………….36
2.6 Palmar Hyperhidrosis………………………………………………………………..37
2.6.1 Epidemiology………………………………………………………………………..39
2.6.2 Clinical Manifestations……………………………………………………………….39
2.6.3 Complications………………………………………………………………………..39
2.6.4 Management………………………………………………………………………….39
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD………………………………………………………42
3.1 Materials ……………………………………………………………………………….42
3.2 Methods…………………………………………………………………………………42
3.2.1 Fingerprint collection………………………………………………………………….42
3.2.2 Hirsutism………………………………………………………………………………45
3.2.3 2D:4D…………………………………………………………………………………45
3.2.4 Palmar hyperhidrosis…………………………………………………………………..47
3.2.5 Measurement of height and weight……………………………………………………49
3.4 Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria………………………………………………………….51
3.4.1 Inclusion……………………………………………………………………………..51
3.4.2 Exclusion criteria……………………………………………………………………51
3.3 Location of Study………………………………………………………………………52
3.5 Ethical Approval ……………………………………………………………………..53
3.6Statistical Analyses …………………………………………………………………..53
4.0 RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………….54
4.1 Study Population…………………………………………………………………………..54
4.2 Anthropometric Variables with Sex………………………………………………….54
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5.0 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………92
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION………………………………………103
6.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..103
6.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………..103
6.3 Contribution to knowledge……………………………………………………………104
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………106
APPENDICES …………………………………………………………………………….

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges on finger balls, palms and soles, with its qualitative and quantitative traits which are not adaptive and free from paratypic influences, it provides a pertinent area of research to human population (Reddy and Reddy 2006).The development of the ridges begins with the formation of pads in the fingers, and the interdigital, hypothenar and thenar areas of the embryo‟s palm during the second month of intrauterine life (Rakik, 1988). Epidermal ridges appear on the surface of the hands after the regression of the pads by the end of the fourth foetal month, when significant andcritical growth of another ectodermal derivative, the brain is
also taking place (Rakik, 1988; Danborno and Idris, 2007). After this period, dermatoglyphic patterns remain unchanged. Although the presence of abnormalities in dermatoglyphics constitutes fossilized evidence of a prenatal insult that has occurred in the second trimester of prenatal life or before (Schaumann and Alter 1976; Babler, 1991).Since dermatoglyphic traits
appear to be evolutionarily conservative, it renders them more reliable for studies of the historical relationships of population components. It is also useful as tools for tracing individuals to particular populations. Fingerprints are highly variable and genetically influenced, they have important significance in forensic science, anthropology, ethnology, genetics, and medicine (Schaumann and Alter, 1976; Odokuma and Igbigbi, 2005).
Every individual has a unique fingerprint pattern, which can be of these three types; loops, whorls and arches. In loops the prints recurve back on themselves to form a loop shape, whorls form circular and spiral patterns and arches create a wave-like pattern and includes plain arches and tented arches (Robert, 1972; Udoaka and Udoaka, 2009).
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The historical development of fingerprint can be traced back to ancient China which had a common practice of using inked finger on all official documents. In the Western culture, however, the earliest records of the pattern on human hands was done in 1684, by Dr Nehemiah, (Nehemiah, 1684) who wrote a paper describing the patterns he saw on human hands under the microscope, which also included the presence of ridges (Lakshmi and Thenmozhi, 2014). This work was followed by that of Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer in 1788, who described that the arrangement of the skin ridges is never duplicated in two persons (Cummins and Midlo, 1943). In 1823, Jan Evangelist Purkyn described nine fingerprints patterns, which included loops, spirals, circles and double whorls (Harold and Rebecca, 1940). Sir William Herschel began the collecting of fingerprints in 1856, and noted the patterns were unique to each person and were not altered by age (Herschel, 1916). In 1879, Alphonse Bertillon, an assistant clerk in the records office at the Police station in Paris, created a way to identify criminals, this system is sometimes called Bertillonage (Kingston and Kirk, 1965). Juan Vucetich brought an improvement in fingerprint collection in 1891, as he began to note measurements on the identification card of all those arrested and devised is own classification system (Lambourne, 1984). Sir Edmund Richard Henry in 1896, created a system that was used to divide fingerprint records into groups, if they have an arch, whorl or loop pattern (Henry, 1934; Gyenis, 2000).
Fingerprint can also be used to dictate the susceptibility of a fetus to diabetes, this is achieved with the aid of fingerprint marker, which describes a contrast in the growth stimuli influencing the anterior and posterior aspects of the embryonic limb bud (Kahn etal., 2008) Each fingertip‟s ridge count (RC) reflects the early fetal size of the fingertip‟svolar pad (Babler 1991). It was also observed that palm print can be used in gender determination. This is because studies have been conducted on dermatoglyphics and it showed that women have fine epidermal ridges while men have coarse ridges; therefore, the ridge density within a given unit of space is greater in women than in men (Cummins etal., 1941).In a crime scene, if the sex of the perpetrator is established from the prints available at the crime scene, the burden of the investigating officer is reduced as their search for potential suspects will be restricted to a particular sex.
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Oral cleft individuals have an increased frequency of ulnar loops as the ridge configuration as compared to the control group (Mathew etal., 2005).There is an increase in the ulnar loop patterns among diabetes mellitus patients compared to control population (Bali and Eswaraiah, 2005). The loop patterns and arch pattern was mostly seen on the thumb in diabetes mellitus patients compared to healthy individuals (Barta etal., 1978). Dermatoglyphics can be used as a predictor tool to analyze the occurrence of breast cancer. It was observed in left hand thumb, ulnar loop, twinned loop ulnar and twinned radial loop was maximum in control group and whorlswere maximum in breast cancer patients when compared to normal group. Dermatoglyphic pattern can predict the occurrence of breast cancer and this dermatoglyphics can serve as a non-invasive, anatomical marker and a predictor tool to determine the individuals with breast cancer (Abilasha, 2015).Some disease conditions associated with dermatoglyphics pattern include Diabetes Mellitus (Barta etal., 1978; Oladipo and Ogunowo 2004 ), sickle cell disease (Oladipo etal.,2007), breast cancer (Seltzer etal.,1990), obesity (Regoly-Mercietal.,1982), rheumatoid arthritis (Ravendranath etal.,2006), schizophrenia (Gyenis etal.,1990, Paez etal.,2001) and cancer (Umana etal., 2013). The application of palm prints has been of great help to man as it can be used for; identification of individuals
and diagnosis of diseases. This was highly used in Chinese medicine, not only to diagnose physical diseases but also mental diseases (Yunyuetal., 2002). Palm prints can also be used in blood relation identification, in which the paternity of a child would be determined (Lietal.,2000).
Hirsutism on the other hand refers to excessive terminal hair appearing in a malepattern in females (Gallway, 1961; Hartzetal., 1979; Kaufman, 1996). This excessive hair may be seen in response to androgen in women and in children producing male pattern of hair growth, which may be congenital or acquired (Azziz, 2003) localized or diffused in this scenario various sites are involved in different patients and races (Gallway, 1961; McKnight, 1964, Bode et al., 2012).
Hirsutism is distributed with family history, as there is an Increase in hirsutism prevalence among the relatives of hirsute patients (Mcknight, 1964,). Hirsutism can be inherited, as it is a genetically transmitted trait, it can also occur due to high level of the male hormone called androgen, which makes them have deep voice and also small breast (Paul etal., 2002; Danborno etal., 2007; Ekback, 2017). Hirsutism can
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also occur due to medications, which leads to excessive growth of hair on the face or body. Examples of such drugs include; anabolic steroids and minoxidil (Loriaux, 2012; Abdul-Aziz et al., 2015)). It occurs only in 10% of most population, except in the far-East Asian women who present hirsutism less frequently (Escobar et al., 2011; Carmina et al., 1992) and its seen more in European and the Maori women (Williamson etal.,2001).
Hirsutism is associated with some conditions like, menstrual disorders (Jalali and Hajian, 2002), Polycystic ovarian syndrome (Mithal etal., 1988, Zargar etal., 2002, Farnaghi and Seyrafi, 2002), hypertrichosis (Noorbala and Kefaie, 2010) obesity (Puri, 2012). Hirsute women have an increase in the concentration of serum androgen and metabolic markers than non-hirsute women (Jin etal., 2011). Hirsutism is more common in patients with increased BMI, this may be a sign of an underlying metabolic disorder, which will lead to the greater risk of the development of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes (Abdul-Aziz etal., 2015).Free testosterone and free androgen index is positively significant in patients with hirsutism and in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome, hence free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovarian syndrome for diagnosis (Gungoretal., 2011).
2D: 4D ratio is the ratio between the length of the 2nd (index finger) and the 4th (ring finger) which varies due to exposure to androgen (Zheng etal.,2011, Mayhew etal, 2007).It is calculated by dividing the length of the index finger of a given hand by that of the ring finger of the same hand. 2D:4D ratio is sexually dimorphic, as it has a lower value in males as compared to females (Manning etal., 1998). It has been found to be related to physical and behavioral traitslike; individuals with lower ratio show a high tendency to aggression (Benderlioglu and Nelson., 2004; Bailey and Hurd, 2005; McIntyre etal.,2007), lower digit ratio tends to be associated with physical fitness or ability to compete in men and women (Manningetal., 2001, Pokrywka,etal., 2005; Paul, etal.,2006; Honekopp, etal., 2006), with birth weight (Danborno etal., 2010), body size and proportion at birth in men, and men with higher digit ratio were shorter at birth (Ronalds etal.,2002). 2D:4D ratios are also associated with disease conditions; an individual with low digit ratio is at high risk of having prostate cancer in males (Manning etal., 2002; Sudhakar etal., 2015), increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome in males with high digit ratio (Fink etal.,2007),other
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disease conditions include congenital adrenalhyperplasia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, depression and developmentalpsychopathology, autism. (Manning et al., 2001; Brown et al., 2002; Okten et al., 2002; Cattrall etal.,2005; Fink etal., 2007).
Triradius is the point of confluence from where the ridges usually radiate in three different directions. They are termed a, b, c and d moving in the radioulnar direction and t is usually found near the proximal palmar margin (Miller etal., 1966). The atd angle is formed by the lines drawn from the digital tri-radius „a‟ to the axial tri-radius „t‟ and from this tri-radius to the digital tri-radius „d‟ (Waseem, 2016).
It has been investigated that the ATD angle is associated with disorders which includes; autism (Arrieta etal.,1990; Wolman etal.,1990; Milicic etal.,2003), schizophrenia (Balgir etal.,1993; Paez etal.,2001; Avila etal.,2003), cleft lip/palate (Woolf and Gianas, 1976; Balgir, 1993; Kohli and Bhalla, 2000; Neiswanger etal.,2002) and genetic heart conditions (David, 1981; Pursnanietal,1989).
Palmer hyperhidrosis is a condition which denotes excessive sweating in the palm, the excessive sweating can lead to embarrassment, frustration, social withdrawal, and low self-esteem (Leungetal.,1999).
The various parameters would be studied among selected dialects of Igala ethnic group. The Igala language is a Yoruboid language spoken in the eastern part of Kogi State, parts of Delta, Edo and Anambra states of Nigeria. The Igala people have a population of about two millionand are surrounded by different ethnic groups like the Ebiras, Binis, Idoma , Tiv, and Igbo (Arokoya, 2012). There exist variation in the dialects of the Igala ethnic group (Linguistic anthropology) and also there cultural practices (Cultural anthropology), hence there is a need to investigate if this can be connected to their morphology and some physical traits. The dialect of the Igala ethnic group used in this study were those from Ankpa, Dekina, Idah, Ibaji, Igalamela, Ofu, Omala, and Olamaboro.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Dermatoglyphics studies have been carried out in several ethnic groups with no work among the Igala ethnic group. There has been a high level of crime and drug use, hence with the use of finger prints, detection of individuals involves in crime and also those involve in the use of drugs can be made. The
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study of 2D:4D have been carried out in various ethnic groups with no work among the Igala ethnic group. Women suffer psychosocial effects due to hirsutism, women with hirsutism are at risk of having irregular periods, as it has been observed that women with the trait are at risk of having polycystic ovary syndrome and Cushing‟s syndrome and also at risk of been infertile and hence the need to study the prevalence in the Igala ethnic group. Since some variations such as linguistic and cultural variation occurs in the Igala ethnic, there is a need to see how these variations can be linked to the occurrence of traits such as dermatoglyphic patterns, hirsutism, 2D:4D and some anthropometric parameters in the Igala ethnic group.
1.3 Justification of the Study
Fingerprint analysis in use since the 20th century, has led to many crimes being solved as items from the crime scene can be subjected to DNA analysis, and this has led to the detection of the individual responsible for the crime. Palmar print pattern has been used to detect women who are at risk of developing breast cancer in China, by using the characteristics of the dermatoglyphics of the relative. The trait of hirsutism is genetically determined, women with hirsutism have the tendency of having polycystic ovarian syndrome. Result from study could showcase women who are at risk of having irregular menstruation and infertility, and proper counselling and onward recommendation would be made available to them.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.4.1 Aim of Study
The aim of the study is to investigate the distribution of dermatoglyphic pattern, 2D:4D, hirsutism, and palmar hyperhidrosis among selected dialects of the Igala ethnic group
1.4.2 Objectives of study
The objectives of the study are to investigate:
i. Finger and palm print patterns among selected dialects of the Igala ethnicgroup
ii. 2D:4D in the different dialects of the Igala ethnic group
iii. prevalence of hirsutism in the different dialects among Igala women

iv. association of finger and palm print pattern, 2D:4D, hirsutism and palmar hyperhidrosis in the different dialects of the Igala ethnic groups.
v. relationship of height to weight, BMI, 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied
vi. relationship of weight to BMI, weight, 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied
vii. relationship of BMI to 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied
viiithe distribution of ridge counts in male and females
1.5 Research Hypothesis
i. There would be differences in palm and finger print pattern in the selected dialects of the Igala ethnic group due to genetic variation which occurs in thedifferent dialects.
ii. There will be relationship between hirsutism and 2D:4D among Igala women.
1.6Scope of the Study
This work is limited to only people from Ankpa, Dekina, Idah, Ofu, Olamaboro, Omala, Ibaji, and Igamela dialects of the Igala ethnic group, Kogi State. The variables collected include Finger prints of both hands, palm prints of both hands, palmar hyperhidrosis for both hands, height, weight, digit lengths and hirsutism.

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