Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

GWAGWA O. TUBUKARE

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The Project File Details

  • Name: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER-BASED MAINS SWITCH CONTROL SYSTEM
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1,565 KB]
  • Length: [115] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Many people tend to enjoy use of facilities without control even when there
are bills to settle to guarantee continuity. This project was born out of the
desire to prevent damages and time wastage on control of industrial
equipment. It is designed to control all the facilities (for example electrical
appliances) not only in the hospitality industry but also in organizations such
as schools, for security, safety and elimination of problems associated with
manual switching. The system is a microcontroller-based mains switch
control project which automatically controls AC loads connected to it
through a serial port interface. The switch control system can range from
simply controlling of light without leaving a seat, to being able to switch on
and off industrial electrical devices through a computer interface, so the
system produced will enable the switches to be controlled from one source
(computer system) by simply issuing a command through the interface on
the computer screen to save the time of going from one switch to another to
put on or off the industrial equipments since the switches can be controlled
from a remote system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page… ………………………………………………………… i
Unizik Logo………………………………………………………….ii
Certification………………………………………………………… …iii
Approval ………………………………………………………… …iv
Dedication …………………………………………………. ……… v
Acknowledgement ………………………………………… ……….vi Abstract ……………………………………………………. …. …..vii Table of content …………………………………………………… viii
Chapter One: Introduction
1. 1 Background ………………………………………………………1
1.2 Objective ………………………………………………………….3
1.3 Significance of the Project…………………………………………4

1.4The scope of the Project……………………………………………5
1.5 Block diagram Overview of the Project ………………………….. 6
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………….. 8
2.2 Overview of Lighting Controller………………..……………. 11
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2.3 Methods of Control……………………………………………. 13
2.4 Types of Systems………….…………………………………… 15
2.5 Manual Switching System…………….……………………….. 17
2.6 History of Automation…………….…………………………… 19
Chapter Three: Methodology and System Analysis
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………… …….21
3.1.1 Methodology……………………………………………… …….22
3.1.2 Prototyping………………………………………………………22
3.1.3 Classification of system Prototypes………………………. …….23
3.1.4 Steps involved in Prototyping…………………………….. …….24
3.1.5 Advantages of Prototyping………………………………………25
3.1.6 Disadvantages of Prototyping…………………………………….26
3.2 Analysis of the Existing System……………………………………26
3.2.1Three Features of Existing Switch…………………………………28
3.3The Problem of the Existing Switch……………………………… …28
3.4 Overview of the Proposed Solution………………………………….29
3.4.1 High level model of the proposed Solution……………………. ….30

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Chapter Four: System Design
4.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………32
4.1 The Design Objective …………………………………………….34
4.2 Design Process……………………………………………………34
4.3 Control Center …………………………………………………….36
4.3.1 The hardware Module……………………………………………36
4.3.2 Switching Circuit………………………………………………..37
4.3.3 Control Module………………………………………………….38
4.3.4 Transmitting Module…………………………………………….39
4.3.4 Receiving Module ……………………………………………….41
4.4 Relay Section……………………………………………………..42
4.4,1 Relay driver Unit…………………………………………………43
4.5 Power supply Section (Circuit) ……………………………………45
4.5.1 Electrical Components Used……………………………………..47
4.6 Functions……………………………………………………………48
4.7 Max 232 serial Interface…………………………………………..50
4.7.1 Serial Connection to the PC……………………………………51
4.8 Microcontroller Section…………………………………………..54
4.8.1 Mathematical Specification…………………………………….57
4.9 System software Algorithm……………………………………….57
4.10 Justification and choice of Programming Language……………60
4.11 Data Dictionary………………………………………………….60

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Chapter Five: System Implementation and Testing
5.0 Introduction………………………………………………….62
5.1 Hardware Requirements……………………………………..63
5.2 The control Subsystem…………………………………………63
5.3 Installation Process…………………………………………….66
5.4 How to open the Software………………………………………66
5.5 Hardware Guide………………………………………………..67
5.6 System Testing…………………………………………………67
5.6.1 Pre-implementation Testing………………………………….68
5.6.2 Post-implementation Testing…………………………………69
5.7 Program Documentation (Operation)………………………..70
5.8 Maintenance Details…………………………………………..71
5.9 Performance Evaluation………………………………………72
5.10 Project Costing……………………………………………….72
Chapter Six: Summary and Conclusion
6.0 Summary……………………………………………………….74
6.1 Problems Encountered…………………………………………75
6.2 Contribution to the Body of Knowledge……………………….75
6.3 Recommendations………………………………………………76
6.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………..77
References………………………………………………………………………..78
Appendices
Appendix i: Source Code……………………………………………….. 81
xii

Appendix ii: Sample Output of the Visual Basic Code……………………101
Appendix iii: Evidence of Completion……………………………………102
Appendix iv: Operational Guide Manual………………………………….103
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Block Diagram overview of the Digital Control System……. …6
Figure 3.1 High-Level Model of the Proposed System ……………………31
Figure 4.1 Project block diagram……………………………………………33
Figure 4.2 The Design Loop………………………………………………..35
Figure 4.3 Diagram of the Hardware Module………………………………37
Figure 4.4 The Data Circuit Diagram………………………………………38
Figure 4.5 Circuit Diagram of Relay………………………………………………43
Figure 4.6 Relay Driver Circuit Diagram…………………………………..44
Figure 4.7 Block Diagram of a Regulated Power Supply System…………45
Figure 4.8 Block Diagram of the Power Supply Circuits………………….47
Figure 4.9 Schematic MAX-232 diagram……………………………………51
Figure 4.10 Serial Connection to the PC……………………………………52
Figure 4.11 RS-232 Connections using the MAX232 ……………………53
Figure 4.11 Shows the Pin- out of the 8952 Microcontroller ……………54
Figure 4.12 Circuit Diagram of Quartz Crystal Oscillator………………..56
Figure 4.13 The Overall program Flow Chart……………………………..59
Figure 5.1: The AT89C52 Implementing the Control Subsystem …………65
Figure 5.2 Overall Circuit Diagram……………………………………….73
List of Table
Table 5.1 Showing the Operational Status of the System ………70

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
Man has been in a continuous quest to improve his well being through
reactions to problems and challenges posed by his environment. For the past
decades, computer and computer communication had gained so much
attention and grown tremendously, that portable and affordable computers
have become ubiquitous. Statistics have shown that most people spend most
of their time on computers, connected together by a network (locally or
globally). Since much time is spent on computer systems, it becomes
necessary to design a device for controlling switches from computer.
Switches are so essential that one cannot avoid using them on a daily basis
for putting on or turning off electrical devices, and as a result of these, many
devices have been designed by man to help him conquer these problems and
challenges posed by physical contact with electricity [1]. The switch control
system can range from simply controlling of light without leaving a seat, to
being able to switch on industrial electrical devices through a computer.
There has to be an interface between industrial electrical devices and a
controller, the personal computer (PC) in this case. Interface is required so
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that the PC can communicate with other devices. The interface used in this
work is the computer port interface [2]. The microcontroller-based mains
switch control system is made up of several devices connected together;
keypads that transmit commands to the device, the controller that is
programmed to put on or off the appliances automatically via a computer
system [9].
It has been observed that the manual switching of the industrial equipment
in the industrial sector has many problems associated with it, which
includes:
 Life of the switch operator might be at risk.
 Damage of the industrial equipment.
 Dissatisfaction of customers due to damaged equipment.
 Time wastage.
As a result of the outlined problems associated with manual switching, the
design of a device that will be able to control switches via a computer
system is intended. The system is aimed at solving the associated problems.

3

1.2 OBJECTIVES
This research work is aimed at constructing effective software and
hardware for microcontroller-based mains switch control system.
Specifically the objectives are to produce a device that:
 Saves the time of going from one switch to another to put on or
off the industrial equipments since the switches can be
controlled from a remote place (computer system).
 Has program control switch, which will help to reduce the use of
manual switches, if not eliminating it completely.
 To create a system that ensure integrity of the complete
microcontroller system during all forms of environmental stress
(shock, transient noise) etc.
 Removes friction with the use of the program control switch.

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1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The significance of this research work is that the system is designed to show
that it can be useful in the industrial sector, large or small organization such
as schools, hotels and business centers and governments. The system
produced will enable the switches to be controlled from one source
(computer system) by simply issuing a command through the interface on
the computer screen. This work can also create job opportunities.
 Time: This work will be able to save the time it takes to manually go
from one device point to another to ensure that proper measures are
taken.
 Safety: This will prevent human physical contact with the manual
switches, which we know has taken many lives due to power
instability.
 Cost: The system reduces the cost of buying switches, which will
easily wear out due to frequent use.
 Home device: This system can equally reduce stress at home
especially when everybody at home is off to work. So it can be used
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when the system in which it is installed is on line by making it a
web- based.
 This work can be used for academic purpose.
 Generation of fund: When an organization makes greater profit, they
tend to pay larger tax to the government.
1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project is limited to the control of electrical devices from a standalone
computer system. This prototype is achieved through the serial port and
expected to control up to three devices, which will be demonstrated with
three bulbs via three relays. This is achieved through an interface with a
microcontroller, an integrated circuit that contains the entire central
processing unit of a computer on a single chip. It can interpret and execute
program instructions as well as handle arithmetic operations [1]. Their
development in the late 1970s enabled computer engineers to develop
microcomputers. Microprocessors led to “intelligent” terminals, such as
bank ATMs and point-of-sale devices, and to automatic control of much
industrial instrumentation and hospital equipment, programmable
microwave ovens, and electronic games. Many automobiles use
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microprocessor-controlled ignition and fuel systems. In essence, the
microprocessor contains the core elements of a computer system, its
computation and control engine.
1.5 BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT

Figure1.1: Block diagram overview of the centralized
digital control system
BRIEF STUDY AND
BACKGROUND
MICROPROCESSOR SWITCH
CONTROL SYSTEM
SUMMARY, ACHIEVEMENTS
RECOMMENDATION,
SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
AND TESTING
REVIEW ON
MICROPROCESSOR-BASED
SWITCH CONTROL SYSTEM

SYSTEM DESIGN

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
AND ANALYSIS
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To ensure clarity as well as understanding of this project work, this report is
presented in six chapters. Chapter one deals on the introduction with some
basic definitions necessary for proper understanding of the project topic.
Chapter two embodies the review of related works while chapter three
describes the methodology and system analysis. Chapter four showcases the
system design – a description of the performance analysis. Chapter five
discussed the system implementation. The last chapter –chapter six
summarizes the research work and states conclusion. References and
appendices follow immediately after chapter six.

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