The Project File Details
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
With the increasing use of network computers, the Internet and advances in telecommunication technology, e-Learning has been widely recognized as a valuable tool for learning and training . The traditional means of higher education has remained dominant in schools in some developing countries. With the significant growth of e-learning, teachers and students normally explore new ways of constructing knowledge . The current technology being heavily researched as an educational platform is the World Wide Web (WWW). The WWW which represents a platform for information storage and dissemination can be accessed in minimum time, and this is very important to the educational community. The fact is that the transition from digital divide society to a global village information society causes the traditional instructional model to be unable to cover the instructional needs of modern societies. The globe is faced with a transition from a static economy to a new knowledge driven economy. Population explosion and increasing admission request into schools in every region of the world brought greater constraints on the resources of several schools. For instance, there is problem of inadequate number of human and material resources to cater for the education of the large population. The population of school age citizen in most places has grown tremendously to the extent that only a small percentage can be offered admission .
A new learning environment needs to be created which will provide autonomy and flexibility, establish contacts and easy communication between centers of culture and knowledge, and facilitate easy access for all. A citizen of a knowledge based society  Conventional classroom based teaching involves the delivery of course lectures by the lecturer in a particular place at a specific time. Hence it imposes a constraint of time and place on both the instructor and the student. Due to the human factor, the lecturer may not always be able to put the optimum effort towards preparing and delivering course models. Direct interaction with the student is not easy because of the large number of students needing attention. The remedy to this situation seems to be the learning techniques that are based on modern technologies such as the Internet and WWW combined with traditional classroom teaching. One of the ways this can be achieved is through the use of virtual classrooms. An electronic classroom is an environment conducive for learning, which takes place in the cyberspace. It provides the tools that learners need and brings together educators and learners to share information and ideas. The virtual classroom is a special form of e-learning that finds relevant applications in enriching the conventional learning methods  opined that e-learning can be deployed using a wide range of technologies and media. A model for improving online educational systems for both teachers and learners was proposed in . The model allows for more accurate assessment and more effective evaluation of the learning process. The model includes logistics systems to show that it could be necessary to integrate systems that handle shipment of textbooks and other physical materials to distance students. The study in  discusses the architectural design of an integrated system for the delivery of lectures in a virtual environment. The architecture and description of the system components are presented with the techniques and recommendations for the implementation of the designed system.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Population explosion and increasing admission request into schools in every region of the world brought greater constraints on the resources of several schools. For instance, there is problem of inadequate number of human and material resources to cater for the education of the large population. The population of school age citizen in most places has grown tremendously to the extent that only a small percentage can be offered admission . A new learning environment needs to be created which will provide autonomy and flexibility, establish contacts and easy communication between centers of culture and knowledge, and facilitate easy access for all citizens of a knowledge based society .With the increasing use of network computers, the Internet and advances in telecommunication technology, e-Learning has been widely recognized as a valuable tool for learning and training . The traditional means of higher education has remained dominant in schools in some developing countries. With the significant growth of e-learning, teachers and students normally explore new ways of constructing knowledge .
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Present technologies enable the creation of electronic classrooms using the Internet and its resources. For the educators and trainees, a benefit of the Internet as platform for electronic classroom is that the information that can be stored is almost limitless. One of the contributions of Electronic Classroom (ECR) is that access to high quality and flexible learning technologies . The information being electronically stored can be accessed or downloaded by learners at their own pace, thereby overriding the constraint of time and place experienced in classroom based learning. The involvement of the distance learning includes teaching using telecommunication tools, which transmit and receive numerous materials through data, voice, and video . There is also an increased use of electronic classrooms (online presentations delivered live) as an online learning platform and classroom for a diverse set of education providers. In addition to electronic classroom environments, social networks have become an important part of e-learning
1.4 THE WEB ECS LEARNING PEDAGOGY
Pedagogy can be defined as a combination of knowledge and skills required for effective teaching. It refers to the strategies, methods and styles of instruction. To have effective web-based learning requires a comprehension of the process by which students learn and interact with technology. Online learning requires a different approach also known as virtual pedagogy or e-pedagogy. Web-based learning pedagogical frameworks are still evolving. Effective utilizing of web-based learning pedagogical frameworks lead to development of higher order learning and critical thought among students. These attributes are achievable through reflective and collaborative work and assessments using online tools such as groups, asynchronous, discussion boards and synchronous communications – electronic classrooms and conference rooms.
Generally three models of learning pedagogy exist for e-learning: maye’s conceptualization cycle, laurillard’s conversational mode and salmon’s e-tivities. Our webvcs adopted the maye’s conceptualization model. Maye states that learning with technology involves a cycle of conceptualization, construction and dialogue. Maye’s model involves three stages he called the conceptualization cycle. Stage one or level one: e-learning conceptualization stage (students given information). This involves exposing students to other peoples’ ideas or concepts, for example, reading lecture notes or seeing images or videos. Stage two: e-learning construction stage (students perform task). Here, students apply these new concepts in the performance of meaningful tasks. For example, in answering a quiz, participating in polls, or writing a journal online. Stage three: e-learning dialogue stage (students given feedback).
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Recently we have seen a growing dependence on the technologies of cyberspace and digital, networked media for conducting our working and social lives. How does our immersion in this new digital world affect us socially and culturally, and how does it change us as teachers and learners. The successful implementation of electronic classroom (e-learning) in an organization requires the right people, the right place, and the right resources. The establishment of an appropriate culture and awareness is very important for the successful adoption of electronic classroom (e-learning) by an organization. Its acceptance by the stakeholders also constitutes a matter of high importance for its effectiveness. It is very important to develop a strategic plan to create awareness of electronic classroom (e-learning) and bring about acceptance of this new learning opportunity.
Infrastructure is the foundation on which electronic classroom (e-learning) is built. Infrastructure, which includes technical infrastructure, software and hardware, and all web accessible technologies, are needed to support and enable electronic classroom (e-learning) in institutions. The infrastructure has to be reliable and secure. The technology will mix and match with the delivery options depending on the course design and other learning circumstances. The selection may even be related to the personal style of the teacher create a convenient environment for learners to access anywhere, anytime.
The essence of a learning activity is that it must have one or more learning outcomes associated with it. In order to achieve the intended learning outcomes there are a sequence of tasks which must be completed. Those involved in the learning activity are assigned different roles when undertaking these tasks. (Conole etal., 2004) The ability to provide a wide range of challenging activities and interactions is a feature of electronic classroom (e-learning). These activities can be classified into two levels: For the basic levels of learning, where the activity requires learners mainly to understand and remember information. For the advanced levels of learning, where the activity requires learners to apply the knowledge, analyze results, transfer learning to another.
Services should include the provision of the needed resources, any type of administrative and technical support, staff accessibility, responsiveness and hardware and software and staff training in the systems equipment.
Assessment is a continuous, ongoing process to measure achievement and monitor the electronic classroom (e-learning) process. It is important to always find effective and valid ways to assess the learning outcomes of students. Technologies offer a new range of tools and strategies and some exciting possibilities for adding new dimensions to the teaching and learning experience. They promise new capabilities for providing feedback, self-assessment, tracking and learning support for staff development and organizations. There should be a continuous assessment to determine current competencies, e-learning delivery and tracking, performance tracking based on learning activities, etc.
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