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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Registering a child’s birth is a critical first step towards safeguarding lifelong protection. Promoting children’s right to birth registration falls clearly within UNICEF’s mandate. There has been some progress, albeit small in raising birth registration levels. Between 2000 and 2010 global birth registration levels rose only slightly, from 58 per cent to 65 percent. Certain trends in the international environment provide opportunities for rethinking approaches to birth registration. Birth registration is the continuous, permanent and universal recording, within the civil registry, of the occurrence and characteristics of births in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth by the State. It is a permanent and official record of a child’s existence. Birth registration is part of an effective civil registration system that acknowledges the person’s existence before the law, establishes family ties and tracks the major events of an individual’s life, from live birth to marriage and death (Cody, 2009).
Although birth registration is almost complete in all developed countries, the lack of progress on civil registration in many developing countries means that global inequalities in birth registration are now extreme. The births of approximately 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered. Of these, around 85 million are in sub-Saharan Africa, 135 million in Asia (east and south Asia and the Pacific) and the remainder in the rest of the world. But does this matter in their lives? Birth registration may signify the beginning of the legal contract between the individual and the State known as citizenship. Birth registration serves as important proof of the place of birth and parentage, and while birth registration does not in itself confer citizenship upon the child, it is often essential for its acquisition based on each country’s laws. Birth registration may also be vital for confirmation of nationality following tumultuous events such as armed conflict and situations of state succession. The registration of births and acquisition of citizenship are distinct processes, however birth registration serves as important proof of the facts that form the basis for conferral of citizenship at birth. More specifically it establishes a legal record of where the child was born and who his or her parents are and thus whether the child can acquire citizenship on the basis of place of birth (jus soli) or descent (jus sanguinis). Children who are not registered are excluded from the benefits of citizenship in ways that vary between countries. A birth certificate may be required to obtain access to basic services such as health and education, and it can also help to protect children from situations of exploitation and violence, such as child marriage and child labour, and achieve convictions against those who have abused a child.
In adulthood, birth certificates may be needed for many purposes: to obtain social security or a job in the formal sector; to buy or prove the right to inherit property; to obtain identity cards; to vote; and to obtain a passport. The lack of a birth certificate can have a serious, cumulative, negative effect on people’s life opportunities. As well as providing the individual with legal proof of identity, birth registration also plays a crucial role in the generation of vital statistics.8 Birth registration is part of national civil registration systems that also record marriages and deaths. Civil registration provides the demographic data that are needed by governments to track the size, differentials and trends of their populations. When complete and accurate, civil registration facilitates democratic governance. It enables governments to develop policies and plans for basic service delivery and social and economic development that respond to the needs of different sectors of their populations. Through these mechanisms, civil registration facilitates the access of both children and adults to protection under the law, to services and entitlements and to social and economic opportunities, and can improve their ability to exercise their civil rights (UNICEF, 2002).
Due to the benefits that accrue from using the computer system, it can be applied to solve numerous problems. Birth rate monitoring cannot be manually achieved. An automated software system is needed to enable instant monitoring of birth rate. This is only possible when there is a web based or online system to register births. As the births are being registered, a bar chart can be used to determine the rate of birth in specific regions. To achieve this, computer programmers need to develop a software system that runs online. The benefit of the system is that it will enable those in charge of taking statistics of birth rate to get needed information easily and with minimal stress.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The following problems were identified:
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to design and implement an online birth rate monitoring information record system with the following objectives:
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant in the following ways:
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers design and implementation of an online birth rate monitoring information record system.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH
This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it consists of, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology, analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation. The choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Online: Refers a system which is connected to or delivered from the internet.
Birth: The process of childbearing
Monitor: To detect and inform about the presence of something.
Registration: the act or process of entering information about something in a book or system of public records
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