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ABSTRACT

Traditionally, bus ticket purchase has been over the counter in bus terminals, however, today it has evolved with the rapid expansion of e-commerce. This project addresses the study and development of an Online Bus Ticketing System web portal that enable customers (passengers) and the staff to make an online bus ticket sale/purchase, ticket cancel, ticket postponement, driver rating, generating of reports and etc. which also act as an operation tool for bus ticketing companies to operate their organization effectively. This research critically assess and study the reason behind the evolution and the current e-ticketing systems. This research project also addresses the problems faced by customers and bus drivers especially on illegal bus operations, long wait to purchase a bus ticket, unsafe environment and many more. The project studies some issues on implementation and also recommendations on how Online Bus Ticketing System web portal can take place effectively. This project also recommends a Decision Support System to deal with the customer’s requirement whereby it provides reliable choices to a customer to make decision. This project includes the development of a prototype Online Bus Ticketing System web portal to support the research objective. This web portal will assist in future development that would support a fully integrated system that links staff of the bus company to customers, staff to staff, staff to other mode of transport providers, staff to businesses and staff to government agencies. PHP, CSS, HTML, JavaScript, Ajax, jQuery, MYSQL database and WampServer are the programming tools used in development of this research project.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGE
Certification II
Dedication III
Abstract IV
Acknowledgement V
Table of Contents VI
List of Figures XI
List of Tables XII
List of Appendices XIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Company Background……………………………………………………………… 2
1.3 Statement of the Problems…………………………………………………………. 3
1.4 Aim and Objectives…………………………………………………………………4
1.5 Scope of the Research………………………………………………………………5
1.6 Significance of the Research………………………………………………………..6
1.7 Research Motivation……………………………………………………………….. 7
1.8 Definitions of Terms………………………………………………………………..7
1.9 Project Organization……………………………………………………………….. 8
VII
CHAPTER TWO: LITRETURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.2 Management Information System………………………………………………….. 10
2.3 E-Commerce……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
2.4 Business to Consumer (B2C)..……………………………………………………… 12
2.5 Decision Support System…………………………………………………………… 13
2.6 Security…………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.7 Payment……………………………………………………………………………. 14
2.8 Portal…………………………………………………………………………………15
2.9 Ticketing System…………………………………………………………………… 16
2.9.1 Review on the Existing Manual Bus Ticketing System…………………….16
2.9.2 Review on Some Existing Computerized Bus Ticketing System………….. 17
2.9.3 Comparison between manual and computerized ticketing system………… 18
2.10 Review on the existing online ticketing system……………………………………. 18
2.10.1 Comparison between online existing bus ticketing System………………… 22
2.11 Development Tools………………………………………………………………… 23
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.2 Research Methodology…………………………………………………………….. 28
3.3 Fact Finding Method……………………………………………………………….. 30
3.3.1 Observation………………………………………………………………… 30
3.3.2 Interview…………………………………………………………………… 30
VIII
3.3.3 Interview Questions and Results…………………………………………… 31
3.3.4 Interview with the Operational Manager…………………………………… 31
3.3.5 Interview Analysis…………………………………………………………. 34
3.3.6 Analysis of the Existing System’s procedure……………………………….35
3.4 Description of the Proposed System……………………………………………….. 36
3.5 Intended Users……………………………………………………………………….37
3.6 Analysis of the Proposed System Functions……………………………………….. 37
3.7 Functional Requirement……………………………………………………………. 38
3.6.1 Staff………………………………………………………………………… 38
3.6.2 Customers………………………………………………………………….. 40
3.8 Use Case Diagram…………………………………………………………………. 41
3.8.1 Use Case Description………………………………………………………. 44
3.9 Activity Diagram…………………………………………………………………… 46
3.10 Class Diagram…………………………………………………….………………… 48
3.11 Non- Functional Requirement………………………………………………………50
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 51
4.2 System Functional Design…………………………………………………………. 51
4.2.1 Structure Design…………………………………………………………………….51
4.2.1.1 Structure Chart for Staff Section……………………………………………52
4.2.1.2 Structure Chart for Customer Section……………………………………… 54
4.3 Data Flow Diagram………………………………………………………………… 55
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4.4 Database Design…………………………………………………………………… 58
4.4.1 Conceptual Database Design………………………………………………..58
4.4.2 Logical Database Design…………………………………………………… 60
4.4.3 Physical Database Design………………………………………………….. 61
4.5 Tools and Methodology used………………………………………………………. 69
4.5.1 Software Package used………………………………………………………69
4.5.2 Tools used………………………………………………………….. ………70
4.5.2.1 Software Requirement……………………………………………………….70
4.5.2.2 Scripting Language………………………………………………………….70
4.5.2.3 Database Management………………………………………………………70
4.5.2.4 Operating System……………………………………………………………71
4.6 Hardware and Software Requirements………………………………………………71
4.6.1 Requirement for System Development…………………………………….. 71
4.7 Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Factors………………………………………. 72
4.8 Goals of User Interface (Usability Factors)………………………………………… 72
4.9 Web Page Design Principles……………………………………………………….. 73
4.10 System Implementation……………………………………………………………. 74
4.10.1 Guidelines on How Online Bus Ticketing System
Web portal can be implemented……………………………………………………. 74
4.11 System Architectural Design………………………………………………………. 74
4.12 Interface Design……………………………………………………………………. 77
4.13 Source Codes………………………………………………………………………. 77
4.14 Testing………………………………………………………………………………77
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4.14.1 Unit Testing………………………………………………………………… 77
4.14.2 Integral Testing…………………………………………………………….. 78
4.14.3 System Testing……………………………………………………………… 79
4.14.4 Acceptance Testing………………………………………………………… 81
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 82
5.2 Limitation of the project…………………………………………………………….82
5.3 Outcomes of the project……………………………………………………………. 82
5.4 Future work of the research…………………………………………………………84
5.5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………. 85
References…………………………………………………………………………………. 87
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………… 89

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
A ticket is defined as “a piece of paper or card giving the holder the right to admission to a place or event or to travel on public transport” (Oxford, 2005).
Generally, a bus ticketing system consists of all the activities involved in producing a ticket, which includes, producing tickets, booking ticket, selling tickets, rejection of the tickets, total tickets produced for a trip, total tickets sold and income gained through the ticket selling.
A bus ticketing system can let customer to know the information about the bus schedule and ticket. Nowadays, online are very common issues to every one so that checking information using online can save allot of time to the customer, so that customer no need to go to the counter to ask of bus and schedule.
Bus ticketing system is a complex system that is difficult to be managed by human, so as a result software system can be used instead of human, which will help to avoid a big percent of mistakes.
Online Bus ticketing system make process of scheduling trips more easier and prevent conflicting in time, also it help customers to book their tickets from their homes and checks the pricing system of the routes, the price of ticket may increase or decrease depending on the season, availability, time of booking, and also depending on the class that customer select and all these factors will be calculated automatically and instantly.
Online ticketing system is a system that assist not only the passengers but also the bus staff position as an efficient service provider, gaining competitive advantages and also lead to superior control over the reservation process and operation, compared to conventional manual processing. The main feature in this online e-ticketing system is to cater destinations between inter cities within
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Nigeria. With this system, the passenger can perform an online bus booking at his or her own free time and will consecutively reduce the human traffic in Nigeria.
Besides the above given reason of curbing the traffic flow and reducing the human and negative environment congestion in Sokoto State Transport Authority Bus Terminal, Therefore a customer has a choice to rate/rank a driver base on his performance and behavior during the cost of journey, the element of providing options to a customer to rate a driver is very important and should be implemented in the Online Bus Ticketing System web portal. This element is relatively important based on the number of unsatisfactory experiences by customers and accidents occurred due to the negligence of the bus driver (Audrey, 2006).
To achieve this element the usage of a Decision Support System (DSS) and Management Information System (MIS) as a tool to develop a system that will finally benefits the user to maximize their rights to make decision based on merit and also the bus company to meet their organization financial objective.
1.2 Company Background
Sokoto State Central Motor Park, Young Shall Grow motor Park and Sokoto State transport Authority are the most significant public transport (bus) terminal in Sokoto state. SOKOTO STATE TRANSPORT AUTHORITY (SSTA) was re- established by state government after the received another set of buses (FUMTA) federal urban mass transit agencies enters into a contract with Sokoto State Government for the maintenance of the supply of the spare parts and the state government to the making of installment payment of the buses and spare parts. In 1994 the transport authority move to its permanent headquarters, the organization like most other public parastatals, has been experiencing problems of MIS-management and slow development, the organization is headed by the general manager who is a chief executive and supported by members
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of management staff. The Sokoto State Transport Authority is under the supervision of the state ministry of works, Housing and Transport.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The existing bus ticketing system for Sokoto state transport authority is manual and so much during the weekend or any given public holidays, the number of commuters’ increases by doubles. The main activity that is taking place in Sokoto State Bus Terminal is over the counter bus ticket sales. With the increasing number of human traffic of 800+ passengers per day with 66+ buses to different routes in the Nigeria. In Sokoto State Transport Authority, purchasing a bus ticket has been an uphill task if a passenger has planned their detailed traveling itinerary. As the result of the survey conducted, due to the intense number of human traffic increase in purchasing a bus ticket is not merely a five or ten minute’s task, but in fact, it can take up to 20 minutes or half of an hour especially during the peak season. Some factors that trigger the development of a new system are:
1) Time consuming: The manual system is very time consuming, stressful and more prone to errors in purchasing a ticket, storing of data, and accessing of data.
2) Insecurity of data: This means lack of security of data or information. In the manual method, records are kept in the office and several people may have opportunity to check all the files because all the files are kept in an appropriate way, this will lead to losses of data and even theft of the records that are valuable.
3) Data Inconsistency and Redundancy: In the manual method of keeping records for processing and manipulation, man has in course of time, devised certain tools which include paper, biro and pencil which he used in recording of data or information and using these manual tools makes him to have duplicate copy of stored data, with this redundancy
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of data and human errors may be encountered and also many papers are wasted and consume many space for storing the record.
4) Delay in Accessing Data: In the manual method of keeping records, accessing data or information become very tedious, because all the files that contained information are not well arranged the way that can be accessed in an appropriate and accurate manner, this will lead to losses of stored information.
5) Ineffective Retrieval of Data: Considering the manual method of keeping records, retrieving on information become very tedious, all files that contained the records are kept in sales office, therefore retrieving are done by checking the files one after the other, this will consume time, misplacement of data or information and wasting of energy. With this many errors will be encountered. And it took time for the staff in the company to know all transactions.
6) Lack of data Integrity: Using manual method of keeping records, all information’s stored are not prevented from people who do not have access to it, and making sure that those who should have access to it can get in a way that are expected to be for feature use.
7) Ineffective Transfer of Data: In a manual method of storing records, transferring of data or information that are stored in a files is done by people who carry records from one office to the other, using this manual method many records are lost and will consume time.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this project is to develop an online bus ticketing system for the Sokoto state transport authority to satisfy a facility of all transaction online with effectiveness to achieve the below objectives:
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a) To investigate and analyze the problems on the existing e-ticketing systems provided by individual bus operators.
b) To identify the relevant features of various components, methods needed for the Online Bus Ticketing System web portal and to assist bus operators operations and marketing decision through timely decision making via Management Information System through the deployment of Online Bus Ticketing System web portal and the phasing out of manual ticketing system.
c) To enable passenger to check the availability of the bus ticket, check the time of departure and arrival for every Transnational’s bus online through the system.
d) To provide a passenger with a web-based bus ticket functions that enable passenger to reserve/book bus ticket through the online system and no need to queue up in the counter.
e) To enable a customer to cancel/postpone a booked ticket and also rate a driver after travelling with the company bus.
f) To ease the bus ticket payment online using Credit Card (e.g. Master Card, Visa Card, Interswitch and Verve card) or bank payment by presenting a bank payment teller during the process of registration.
g) To minimize the number of staff at the ticket box and the counter.
1.5 Scope of the Project
This research work focuses on two parties, i.e. Staff and the customers. The system administrator may be specialize member of the company staff who administer staff to this system, the administrator is able to add, edit delete staff. The staff are management board members whose are cashiers, managers and bus operators. The functions of staff is to retrieve information, verify payments, travelling issues, view rates of driver, allocating driver to bus, suspending/releasing
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drivers, manage route, manage bus seats, manage news, generate reports and etc. This back-end activities will help the company to evaluate its current position and to plan its company’s operations on how and what action to be taken in order to stay ahead in this competitive business world.
The customer will be able to utilize this Online Bus Ticketing System web portal to perform their transaction of purchasing bus tickets at their own hassle free time, postpone/cancel ticket booked, and rate a driver as a decision support system.
1.6 Significance of the Research
This research survey identifies the need of developing and promoting a comprehensive Online Bus Ticketing System web portal of various bus operators in Nigeria. This study explores views from the bus ticketing company’s as the service providers and the customers as the system users upon the adoption of this system.
The bus ticketing company’s, the survey conducted identifies the responds received from the passengers on the current available system in the market, the cost-effectiveness of developing and maintaining this system and the usage of reports from the system.
In this business competitive era, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is placed on a platform by many organizations as their key indicator for success. Online data handling has been a major tool to provide better customer service. By adapting ICT as a tool to provide the bus operator’s management, it will not only improve operations efficiency, gaining competitive advantages, delivering higher-quality services, but it will also lead an organization to superior control over the booking process which will allow the customers to choose their services from other competitors.
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On the other hand, the survey conducted on the system users identifies the awareness of the current system and the willingness to transform from practicing the conventional (manual) method of over the counter for purchasing of bus tickets to the modern method of purchasing through a web portal.
1.7 Research Motivation
The motivations for this research project came from needs to provide an efficient and fast full way of how bus ticketing companies handle their ticket transactions. Even though the Sokoto State Transport Authority uses manual process of ticketing system. There is always the need for the Company to explore a means through which records can be manage which enable passenger to check availability of bus ticket, book bus ticket, and pay bus ticket online.
With these in mind, there is need to design and implement an online Ticketing system, for the Sokoto State Transport Authority in order to solve some of the problems concerning with manual ticketing system as mentioned above.
From experience, I as a customer that has been travelling through Sokoto State Transport authority, an observation has been made on how the carry out their operation on esteem manual ticketing system which need to upgrade. With my knowledge and experience that I had in software programming, database design, system analysis and etc. are what willingly motivate me to developed this system as my research work to overcome the problems of existing system.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
Bus: A large motor vehicle carrying passengers on a fixed route.
Ticket: A piece paper or card holder that gives right to admission to a place or event or travel on public transport.
Reservation: The action of reserving/booking or arranging for use of a particular person.
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Cancellation: The act of deciding that (a planned event) will not take place.
Postponement: An act of arranging for (something) to take place at a time later than that first scheduled.
System: A complex whole; a set of things working together as a mechanism or interconnecting network.
Data: Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis.
Record: A piece of evidence about the past, especially a written or other permanent account.
Information: Facts or knowledge provided or learned.
Travel: To be on a journey, often for pleasure or business, and with luggage; to go from one place to another.
Rate: To assign or to be assigned a particular rank or level.
1.8 Project Organization
The purpose of this research document is to give an overview of major phases involved throughout the development of the dissertation. Basically, the research document is divided into 5 chapters.
Chapter 1 covers the Introduction of the research. This chapter covers the overview of the research including problem statements, objectives, scope and significance of the research.
Chapter 2 covers literature review. This chapter concentrates on the overall aspect about Online Bus Ticketing System. This chapter begins with the introduction of e-ticketing, understanding the online ticketing applications, understanding the role of e-commerce, the security and privacy issues, and the payment methods of online ticketing. The incorporation of Decision Support System and Management Information System are also highlighted in this chapter for better understanding in the development of the Online Bus Ticketing System web portal.
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Chapter 3 covers on the research methodology that is used in completing the dissertation and the analysis of an Online Bus Ticketing System web portal after obtaining information from the interview and observation. This includes the analysis on the bus passengers awareness on the current services provided to them by the current individual bus e-ticketing systems. The bus operators ranking is explained further in this chapter. This includes the calculation derived for each criterion that will determine the ranking. This chapter also includes a proposed framework on implementation of an Online Bus Ticketing System web portal
Chapter 4 covers the design and development of the Online Bus Ticketing System web portal. The structure charts, context data flow diagram, entity relationship diagram and data dictionary is also shown in this chapter. This chapter also includes the implementation of the suggested features gathered from the survey and the technical aspects of the development.
Chapter 5 covers the conclusion, project outcomes, future work of the research and project limitations of the system.

 

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