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The security condition in the world today has saddened the hearts of many. In recent time, there are frequent cases of armed robbery, kidnapping and breaking and entry into people’s home and this has led to the loss of properties worth millions if not billions of Naira. Hence, the needs arose to design and implement a security door that could restrict the entry of an unauthorised door user. This design architecture utilises the microcontroller-based control and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, with the objective of programming the microcontroller to monitor the hardware in sliding door. The system consists of a microcontroller Atmega-32 which was programmed using “Bloodshed Dev C++ 5.9 compiler” to send signals to the multiplexers when the tag is closer to the RFID reader. The multiplexers consist of integrated circuit which prompts for a display of the identity of the card user in the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The LCD displays the status of the card. The result shows that, upon validation of the tag, the LCD displays a welcome note and access will be granted, otherwise no access, giving the user two more chances to scan the correct tag, before final denial of access and alarm to notify the public of an intruder.
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATION xi
LIST OF TABLES xiii
LIST OF FIGURES / PLATES xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Scope of the Study 4
1.5 Research Methods 4
1.6 Significance of the study 5
1.7 Arrangement of the Thesis 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Radio Frequency Identification Technology 7
2.2 Tags 8
2.2.1 1-Bit Transponder 8
2.2.2 Glass Housing Tag 9
2.2.3 Labels Tag 9
2.2.4 Smart Tags 9
2.2.5 Sensor Tags 10
2.2.6 Chip Less Tags 10
2.2.7 Encrypted Tags 10
2.3 Advance Door Locking System Using Palmtop 11
2.4 C++ Programming 11
2.5 The Analysis of Intelligent Campus Security System 12
2.6 The Design of PC Wireless Door Security System. 13
2.7 State of the Art in Security Door System 14
CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 17
3.1 Design Methods 17
3.2 Design Analysis 18
3.2.1 Design of the Power Supply System Unit 18
3.2.2 Design of the Locking System Circuitry 21
3.2.3 Design of the Alarm Circuit 22
3.2.4 The Design of Voltage Input to the Microcontroller. 23
3.2.5 The Liquid Crystal Display Circuitry 24
3.3 Components/Materials Used 24
3.4. The Design of the Control System 25
3.4.1 Pin Assignment for Atmega 32 Microcontroller 28
3.5 The RFID-Based Security Door Design Set Up 29
CHAPTER FOUR: CONSTRUCTION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32
4.1 Construction 32
4.2 Results and Discussion 41
4.2.1 Power Supply Test 43
4.2.2 RFID Reader Test 44
4.3 Findings 44
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 46
5.1 Conclusion 46
5.2 Recommendation 47
APPENDIX A: The C++ Program of control system 51
APPENDIX B: Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation 62
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
AC Alternating Current
AM Amplitude Modulation
ASK Amplitude Shift Keying
BAP Battery Assisted Passive
BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor
CW Continuous Wave
DC Direct Current
EAS Electronic Surveillance System
EPC Electronic Product Code
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
FET Field Effect transistor
FM Frequency Modulation
FRAM Ferro Random Access Memory
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
HF High Frequency
IC Integrated Circuit
IDE Integrated Development Environment
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LF Low Frequency
PC Personal Computer
PDA Personal Digital Assistants
PDM Pulse Duration Modulation
PM Phase Modulation
PPM Pulse Position Modulation
PSK Phase Shift Keying
RAM Random Access Memory
RF Radio Frequency
RFID Radio Frequency Identification
RO Read Only
RW Read Write
UHF Ultra High Frequency
VBE Emitter Base Voltage
VDC Direct Current Voltage
WORM Write Once Read Many
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 ATmega16 Input/output Pin Assignment 30
Table 4.1 Main characteristics of measuring instrument used in this study 44
Table 4.2 Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Values 44
Table 4.3 Testing Rate 45
LIST OF FIGURES / PLATES
Figure 2.1 System Design Architecture 13
Figure 2.2 Components of RFID System 14
Figure 3.1 Architecture of the proposed RFID-based security system 18
Figure 3.2 Design of Power Supply Unit 19
Figure 3.3 The Electromechanical Locking System 22
Figure 3.4 The Alarm Circuit 23
Figure 3.5 Voltage Input to Microcontroller 24
Figure 3.6 The Display Unit 25
Figure 3.7 The System Main Flow Chart 27-28
Figure 3.8 Schematic of the RFID Security Design Setup 31
Plate 4.1 Bread boarding of the Circuit 34
Plate 4.2 Powering the Bread boarding Circuit 35
Plate 4.3 Mounting the Components on the Vero board 36
Plate 4.4 Placing the Soldered Components in Casing 37
Plate 4.5 Testing the Circuit with Instrument 38
Plate 4.6 Looping all the Circuit Terminals 39
Plate 4.7 Connecting the Circuit with the Prototype 40
Plate 4.8 The Front View of the Prototype 41
Plate 4.9 The Back View of the Prototype 41
Plate 4.10 Placing the Tag Close to the RFID Reader 42
Plate 4.11 The Door Opened 43
Plate 4.12 The Door Closes After 5sec 43
1.1 Background to the Study
The security condition today leaves a lot to be desired. The frequent cases of armed robbery, kidnapping and breaking and entry into people’s home have caused the loss of properties worth billions of Naira (Ralph, 2014). Some of these incidents occurred in homes or a protected compound, and the attacks happened despite the security doors that were made to stop intruders. Individuals are becoming more aware of the dangers associated with relying on keys or padlocks to provide security to unauthorised areas of the apartments (Markus, 2000). Criminals can forge keys or make master keys that could be used to gain access to unauthorised areas (rooms or offices) and people are currently looking for more effective methods to protect their homes and building, premises (Mohd, 2008). To eliminate the drawbacks of using the traditional keys and padlocks, the use of password in doors and gates mechanism evolved. Unfortunately, users cannot always remember the sort of password, partly due to fundamental human limitations; hence, most users attempt to write the password, which can be misplaced or seen by a third party. Other users tend to choose easy to remember passwords that could be easily guessed. These shortcomings necessitate the development of a better authentication method.
The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology ensures no contact link between tag and reader or worried about dirty surroundings that may oppose other auto identification technologies like bar codes. Radio frequency identification systems are mostly categorised on the ground frequency ranges. The often used radio frequency identification kits include low frequency (30-500 kHz), medium frequency (900 kHz- 1500 MHz) and high frequency (2.4GHz -2.5GHz). Basically, a radio frequency identification unit is made-up of antenna (coil), then a transceiver and transponder (RFID tag) electronically programmed with unique information.
The RFID tag consists of a small radio frequency transmitter, which sends encoded messages to interrogate the radio frequency tag, and then the receiver who receives the radio signal gives output with its identification information. The two commonly used categories of tags are the passive and the active tags. Nevertheless, the passive tags are not heavy and less expensive when compared to the active tags. The tag’s information is stored electronically and can be installed in consumer products and could still be implanted in animals for identification. Few numbers of tags can be read from distance, meters away and even beyond line of sight from the reader. Some tags don’t use battery, but use the signal energy sent by the reader as the source of energy.
This study proposes the design and implementation of a two-factor authentication security system, which utilises the RFID tag and pin code for authentication. The proposed design when implemented could overcome the drawbacks of the single secret authentication approach for securing lives and properties. In addition, the system can provide better security than other systems due to the application of the radio frequency identification system design, which include a way of distinguishing the various tags that may be within the range of the RFID reader.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In recent times, the safety of lives has become an important issue for most if not all the people especially in the cities, because some persons have tendencies to steal other people’s properties or can endanger the safety of lives in the homes or offices. So, to ensure the safety of lives and properties many persons use padlocks or alarm system. Individuals are becoming more aware of the dangers associated with relying on keys or padlocks to provide security to unauthorised areas of their apartments (Markus, 2000). Fraudsters/criminals can forge keys or make master keys that can be used to break into such rooms or offices (Mohd, 2008). To eliminate the drawbacks of using the traditional keys and padlocks, different security systems have been developed (Okundamiya, 2007; Gyanendra, 2010; Kuei-Mei, 2012).
Smart power (2016) applied RFID control system to an Electro Magnetic Lock system to enhance its security performance, and the door access control system is another security system, which allows selective entry of people using the RFID access control card, digital keypad or remote control. The drawback of this design is that uninterrupted power is required for its efficiency.
The need for a more effective method to protect homes and offices has motivated the use of alarm system. Several types of alarm systems, which utilize different sensors, have been discussed in the literature (Khaing, 2015). However, the sensor system is not effective at all times. The reason is that it could sense any types of signals in the environment and the difference could be analysed, thereby giving false signal in line with the pre-arranged value. This can be confusing especially when it has to do with identifying a particular signal (Aruna, 2013).
This study proposes the design and implementation of a two-factor authentication security system, which utilises the RFID tag and pin code for authentication. The proposed design when implemented can overcome the drawbacks of the single secret authentication approach for securing lives and properties. In addition, the system can provide better security than other systems due to the application of the Radio Frequency Identification model design system, which include method of selecting various tags that may be around the RFID reader by the use of a microcontroller that could be programmed to enforce compliance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to design and implement an RFID-based security system with efficient control system facilities that can secure the entrance to a house.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
(a) design an RFID-based security system that uses two-factor authentication to provide security control to restricted areas;
(b) construct a prototype of the designed RFID-based security to grant access only to the authorised users based on the control list provided to the system; and
(c) implement and evaluate the performance of the developed prototype system.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The RFID-based security system described in this study is limited to the medium frequency range. The system is designed to operate at 13.56MHz and can be powered from a 12V DC. In addition, the door lock controlled by a motor that is driven by the Alf Vegards RISC processor (AVR) Atmega 32 microcontrollers. The system with tag reading speed between 0.5 ~ 2.0 second and the storage capacity of 1 – 50 RFID tags information are considered in this study.
1.5 Research Methods
The methods proposed to achieve the set objectives in this study are as follows:
(a) design of a two-factor (RFID tag and pin code) authentication system based on RFID technology to eliminate the access of unauthorised personnel into private areas;
(b) construction of an automated door/access path using microcontroller design, this involves the application of automated system that is incorporated into these doors/gates for efficient and optimum performance. The microcontroller (which is programmable) has series of instruction that could be fed into it, this helped it to accomplish most intelligent task like the human brain. These include detection of card, identification of password, displaying ―access granted, ―access denied and the opening and the closing of the door using smart card. An electromagnetic relay was designed to control the opening and closing of the door/gate which can be moved to and fro by a synchronous motor (DC); and
(c) the microcontroller was programmed using C++ to enforce compliance of the system and the performance of the developed system was determined experimentally, by comparing the measured values with standard values.
1.6 Significance of the study
The recent frequent occurrence of arm robbery, kidnapping and breaking and entry into people’s home has created tension in the lives of many people and because of these problems many people sleep with one eye open, and when these people are away from home, their mind are not at rest because of personal belongings at home that can be stolen by an intruder. Therefore, a secure environment is very essential especially to people with busy lifestyle. Instead of worrying about the security of their homes, people can now concentrate better on more important things.
Similarly, keeping several keys for several locks in ones homes/offices can be cumbersome and losing a key will give the person a hard time to enter the house. Other people finding the key may also bring fear to the family since that person has the access to the house. The security door lock does not only discourage would-be burglars in continuing their act, but it also gives peace of mind to the homeowners and leaves a worry-free secure home.
1.7 Arrangement of the Thesis
Chapter 1 of this thesis discusses the background to the study, statement of the problem, the objectives, overview of research methods and the significance of the study. Chapter 2 gives a thorough review of relevant literature applied to the design of security door system and the RFID technology and their applications. Chapter 3 describes the design methods, analysis and the experimental set-up of the security door system. Chapter 4 discusses the construction, testing and results while Chapter 5 gives the conclusion and recommendation of the study.
Appendix A gives the software programme written using C++. Appendix B contains the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation.
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