Download the complete computer science project topic and material (chapter 1-5) for titled Design and Implementation of XTM for Navigating News Domain here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

3,000.00

Download the complete computer science project topic and material (chapter 1-5) for titled Design and Implementation of XTM for Navigating News Domain here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON Design and Implementation of XTM for Navigating News Domain

The Project File Details

  • Name: Design and Implementation of XTM for Navigating News Domain
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: 2.36MB
  • Length: 98 Pages

 

ABSTRACT

In this present age, the challenge is no longer the availability of information but the appropriate information. This challenge is attributed to the fact that information is highly unstructured. Also in many areas of knowledge, concepts and relationships become so complex because they are not structured and as such it is difficult to organize and navigate the information clearly and logically. Thus, alternative information-organization techniques are required to be able to effectively and efficiently navigate and retrieve information from systems, web included. By using an innovative technology – XTM for organizing and representing knowledge out of a specific domain, such as news domain, an XTM-based ontology for news domain is developed in this thesis with loads of advantages; for reuse, sharing, and interoperability of knowledge structure. The information becomes structured and the Scope attribute of topics in XTM is used to classify and retrieve information, which will mostly reduce the information querying time. To this end, this thesis, implements a web-based application named NEWS.net which is capable of resolving dead links issue.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Research Motivations …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.3 Research Aim and Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.4 Research Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.5 Contribution of the Study to Knowledge ……………………………………………………………… 8
1.6 Structure of the Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.2 XML Topic Maps (XTM) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.3 What are XML Topic Maps ………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.4 The TAO Characteristics of Topic Maps Model …………………………………………………. 11
2.4.1 Topics …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.4.2 Association ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.4.3 Occurrences …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.5 Topic Identification: Name and BaseName ………………………………………………………… 14
2.6 XTM Attribute: Scope and Namespace ……………………………………………………………… 15
2.7 XTM’s Published Subject Indicators (PSI) ………………………………………………………… 16
2.8 Producing an XML Topic Maps ………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.9 XML Topic Maps (XTM) Creation Tools ………………………………………………………….. 20
2.10 Ontology Process ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.11 Related Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN OF XTM FOR NAVIGATING NEWS DOMAIN ………………………………… 29
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
3.2 Basic News Ontology Design ……………………………………………………………………………… 29
3.3 Design Process of XTM …………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
3.3.1 Defining the target ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
3.3.2 Build and manage ontology (ontology usage) ………………………………………………………….. 37
3.3.3 XTM software application …………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
3.3.4 Setting up the XTM concepts …………………………………………………………………………………. 41
3.3.5 Allocation of information resources ……………………………………………………………………….. 42
3.3.6 Establishing Association between Topics ………………………………………………………………… 43
3.3.7 Testing the XTM ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
3.4 Visualizing the XTM Document ………………………………………………………………………… 46
3.5 System Architecture …………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
3.5.1 Data tier ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
3.5.2 Server/Maintenance tier ………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
3.5.3 Users tier …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ………………………………………. 51
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
4.2 System Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
4.2.1 Functional requirements ………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
4.3 System Implementation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
4.3.1 Index page …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
4.3.2 Navigating News categories…………………………………………………………………………………… 54
4.3.3 Resolving dead links …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
4.4 Results and Discussions …………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
4.5 System Testing …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
4.5.1 Usability testing …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
4.5.2 User acceptance testing …………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
4.5.3 Security testing …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
4.5.4 Functional testing …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
4.6 Results of the RSS Model ………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ………………………………………………….. 69
5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
5.2 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
5.3 Future Work…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
APPENDIX A: ONTOLOGY FILE ……………………………………………………………………………………. 75
APPENDIX B: SAMPLE PROGRAM FILE …………………………………………………………………………. 82

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1.1: The Genealogy of XTM (Park and Hunting, 2002). ………………………………………………… 4
Figure 2.1: Example of Topics and Types ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
Figure 2.2: Sports News Taxonomy ……………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Figure 3.1: News Ontology ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Figure 3.2: Ontopia Application Home Page ………………………………………………………………………… 39
Figure3.3: Concepts of XTM ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
Figure3.4: Ontology, pointing to different information resources (URL). ………………………………… 43
Figure 3.5: Interface for browsing the ontology. …………………………………………………………………… 45
Figure 3.6: News Ontology Vizigator………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
Figure 3.7: Vizigator Properties of (Sports) Topic ………………………………………………………………… 47
Figure 3.8: System Architecture …………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
Figure 4.1: Index Page of the NEWS.net Application ……………………………………………………………. 54
Figure 4.2 (a): Sports News Page ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
Figure 4.2 (b): Sports News sub-category ……………………………………………………………………………. 55
Figure 4.3: Page for online Sports News ……………………………………………………………………………… 56
Figure 4.4: Result of (Dead Links) URLs in the infotech News of NEWS.net System ………………. 58
Figure 4.5: Screenshot of Bio informatics XTM-based System‟s Dead Links Output………………… 59
Figure 4.6: Screenshot of Oil Spill XTM-based System‟s Dead Links Output ………………………….. 59
Figure 4.7: Results Displayed for two News Items. ………………………………………………………………. 64
Figure 4.8: Algorithm that Discuss the Result of the Implementation ……………………………………… 65
Figure 4.9a: JSP codes to check Computer Network Connectivity. …………………………………………. 66
Figure 4.9b: JSP codes to check Dead links …………………………………………………………………………. 67
Figure 4.10: Command to startup Server ……………………………………………………………………………… 68

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: XTM Tools ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
Table3.1: Ranked Matrix …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
Table 3.2: Guidelines for the XTM Document ……………………………………………………………………… 38
Table 3.3: Comparison of some XTM Application Tools ………………………………………………………. 41
Table 4.1a: Comparative Results of Existing Systems and the proposed NEWS.net system ……….. 57
Table 4.1b: Comparative Results of Existing Systems and the proposed NEWS.net system in terms of Dead Links ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
Table 4.2: Ranked News Matrix …………………………………………………………………………………………. 62

ABBREVIATIONS
ONF: Ontopia Navigator Framework

XML: Extensible Markup Language XTM: XML Topic Maps

ISO: International Standard Organization

IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission

SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Langauge

HyTM: HyTime Topic Maps

URIs: Uniform Resource Identifiers

RDBMS: Relational Database Management System

RSS: Ranked Semantic Similarity

GPS: Global Positioning System

UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

JSP: JavaServer Pages

Xlink: XML Linking Language

PSI: Published Subject Indicator

URL: Uniform Resource Locator

HTML: HyperText Markup Language

SDK: Software Development Kit

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol

RCP: Rich Client Platform

TMCL: Topic Maps Constraint Language
API: Application Programming Interface
OWL: Web Ontology Language

SQL: Structured Query Language

RDF: Resource Description Framework

LTM: Linear Topic Maps

J2EE: Java2 Platform Enterprise Edition

XSLT: Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations

W3C: World Wide Web Consortium

RDF/S: Resource Description Framework/Scheme

TM4L: Topic Maps for eLearning
TM4J: Topic Maps for Java

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the Study

The availability of information and its related traffic on the internet is always on the rise. For example; book vendors, news agencies and organizations, or business enterprise in general owned by individuals and organizations have been rapidly shifted to the internet, courtesy of web applications. It is often said that in human history the web is possibly the richest information depository; Dichev and Dicheva (2001). Seeking information is a familiar and important human activity. Most often, we are involved in the use of websites and networked information management systems to surf for information. Whatever information users decide to surf for, the tendency that it can be found somewhere in the digital globe is high. But in most cases, surfing for information is not always effective or efficient. When a user surfs for information, the system frequently returns a huge chunk of unrelated results. Hence, in this current age, the challenge is not the availability of the information but getting the relevant information Yi (2008). This challenge is attributed to the fact that information is highly unstructured. Thus, alternative information-organization approaches are required to more effectively and efficiently navigate and retrieve information from systems, web included.
Also as Website grows and turns into a Web portal with a deeply interconnected Website architecture, in which users are provided a gateway to a rich content of links, images, and other types of information, developers are faced with the growing challenges of enforcing link integrity and navigational order. Tasks that once were simple can turn into laborious and convoluted processes as the information resource base of the site expands. It is noteworthy to mention that before the emergence of the new technology called Semantic Web; keyword-based search engines such as Google or Yahoo are the major media of using the current Web. It is doubtless that the web would have not recorded the tremendous achievements it had made today, if not for search engines. However, there are shortcomings militating against their use. Surprisingly, in spite of progressive enhancements and maintenances recorded in the technology of search engine, the shortcomings basically remain unchanged. It is very likely that the technology progress could not match the progressive increase in the Web content. An alternative measure considered is to represent Web content in a format that is machine-understandable and to adopt knowledgeable techniques to utilize full advantage of these representations. We refer to this scheme of transforming the Web as Semantic Web initiative and inventiveness. It is very important to know that the Semantic Web will not be a new universal super information medium that is parallel to the current World Wide Web; instead it will progressively grow out of the existing, Web Antoniou and Harmelen (2008).
It is pertinent to know that the terms ontology and semantic web are closely related and intervolving as ontology is the stronghold and prime element for building up of semantic web content. Ontology is a known term that computer science hijacked from other known disciplines like Philosophy and gave it a precise technical meaning that is quite different from its original use.

For the purpose of this thesis, we will define ontology according to (Gruber, 1993) as an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization. And according to topic maps terminology (Ontopia, 2010) ontology is a precise description of the kinds of things which are found in the domain covered by the topic map: in other words, the set of topics that are used to define classes of topics, associations, roles, and occurrences. In general, ontology depicts formally a domain of discourse. That is, it defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. For example: News media, Medicine, Photography, Shakespeare work, and so on. However, in this thesis the area of knowledge is on News Domain. The development of ontology will continue to offer a platform for the building of the semantic part of Semantic Web. It is ascertained that we have several markup languages that have been created and using XML a well structured markup language to denote ontologies is not unfamiliar. Today, XML Topic Maps (XTM) is the main topic maps syntax and is supported by nearly all topic map tools for developing ontologies.
Topic Maps is an ISO standard published as ISO/IEC 13250 in 2000 for the representation and interchange of knowledge. The standard defines the basic model and an SGML-based syntax for it, which uses HyTime for linking, and is therefore known as HyTM. When the standard was published it was clear that something more web-optimized was needed, and so an ad-hoc organization known as TopicMaps.Org was formed to create a topic map syntax based on XML and URIs. TopicMaps.Org published its XML Topic Maps (XTM) 1.0 specification in early 2001, and in October of the same year that syntax was accepted into the second edition of ISO 13250 as an annex.

Structurally, the diagram in Figure1.1 presents the developmental history of XTM. XML was
formed because a lot of users felt that SGML was too complicated. There was a need to simplify
and limit its features to those that are essential for use in a Web context. It is in the same
motivation that XTM was designed: to simplify the ISO topic map specification for optimized
use on the Web. (However, the development of XML shows that the eliminated complexity is
returning in the associated specifications.)
Figure1.1: The Genealogy of XTM (Park and Hunting, 2002).
The purpose of XTM is to convey knowledge about resources through a superimposed layer, or
map, of the resources. A topic map captures the subjects of which resources speak, and the
relationships between subjects, in a way that is implementation-independent.
In a word, XTM is a kind of data format that can be used to describe the structure of information
resources. In addition, it can also quickly locate one or more concepts on a “map”, and represent the relationship between them. XTM helps by making it possible to relate together, information that comes from different sources through merging and published subjects. Generally, the heart of every XTM application is known as the topic map engine, which is roughly equivalent to an RDBMS database engine, but designed for XTM. This component knows how to import and export XTM (and other topic map syntaxes), store, update, and query topic maps, and so on. The engine will handle the storage, and any updates would happen through it. For example, applications that implement an XTM-driven portal will sit on top of the engine and use it to access the XTM. To sum up, topic maps make information findable by giving every concept in the information its own identity and providing multiple redundant navigation paths through the information space. These paths are semantic, and all points on the way are clearly identified with names and types that tell you what they are. This means you always know where you are, which prompted Charles Goldfarb to call topic maps “the GPS of the information universe.” Interestingly, Ivan Herman from the World Wide Web Consortium says “that the Semantic Web is in the Uniform Resource Indicators (URIs) and that each resource on the web can be identified through an URI”. Hence, XTM, known as a meta-data format which describes the structure of information resources, can largely improve information management and delivery. It has great value to study and worth of being researched. In this thesis, the phrase “topic maps” and XTM are used interchangeably.

1.2 Research Motivations

Semantic web concept and its related technology: XTM is a relatively new field of study (Anyi, 2012) carried out a research survey to investigate what has been written about XTM from year 2000 to 2011. As well as finding out the research and publication trends in XTM. Anyi found out that from 2009 to 2011, it was on knowledge and intelligent based system. Anyi equally pointed out five themes where researches were conducted; in which ontology and semantic web were parts of them. Anyi further enumerated a good number of future research areas such as knowledge navigation and retrieval improvement, intelligent topic map and knowledge representation modeling. In other words, it means modeling or developing XTM-based ontology that can adapt to other forms of ontology language and extended to other framework or application to resolve issues that may arise.
Interestingly, a few number of research works have been carried out but only restricted to designing an XTM-based ontology on some knowledge areas such as music, languages, meals and so on. However, implementing the ontologies to form XTM-based applications (Ellouze et al, 2008; Chen et al, 2011) is rarely carried out. There is lack of extensibility in their work. And as such there is no application or framework to maintain the XTM-based ontology, since there is continuous evolution of ontology. The likelihood of dead links over an unmaintained ontology (Grigoras, 2005) is always very high. Dead links occur when URLs of a subject or class (topic in XTM) are wrongly typed by author of ontology or the subject or class no longer exist in the internet at the time ontology is designed. That is, users cannot access the resources available at the occurrence of a topic not as a result of network connection or computer and network protection of a firewall or proxy and so on. Having carried out a thorough study of the research issues mentioned above, this research work tries to address these research issues, and to the best of our knowledge there is no work in the literature that addresses how XTM can be maintained to avoid dead links.

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives

The aim of this thesis is to be able to explore XTM and its related tools to design and implement an XTM-based web application for the purpose of more efficient and effective information‟s navigation in the domain of news. The objectives of the research are to:
i. develop an XTM-based ontology for the domain; and resolves dead links which arise from unmaintained XTM.
ii. implement XTM-based application for the domain.

1.4 Research Methodology

A review of related literature such as XML Topic Maps: Creating and Using Topic Maps for the Web, Using XTM for Navigating UDDI, Semantic Web, Ontological Engineering, and some other related work is carried out. An XTM-based ontology for news domain is developed. The whole process is divided into some stages and use Notepad++ editors and Ontopia Application Software as XTM‟s Creation Tool which runs on Apache-Tomcat server.
The system is implemented by interfacing the ontology with Ontopia Navigator Framework (ONF) – a J2EE-based tool and embedded JavaServer Pages (JSP) codes for maintaining the XTM against issues such as dead links.

1.5 Contribution of the Study to Knowledge

The study establishes a pilot NEWS.net; which is an XTM-based web application, capable of maintaining XTM by resolving dead links. This would further enhance XTM for knowledge representation and interchange.

1.6 Structure of the Thesis

The rest of the thesis is organized as follows: Chapter Two captures the technology: XTM and its concepts in a broader form and reviews some literature that is related to the topic. Chapter Three looks mainly at the processes and stages involved in developing the XTM and the System Architecture. Chapter Four is titled Implementation, Results and Discussion. It captures the requirements for the system to implement and also discusses the results. Chapter Five concludes the research work with conclusion and recommendation.

 

See more computer science project topics and materials

GET THE FULL WORK