The Project File Details
- Name: DESIGNING OF AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS FOR THE LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OF OGI FROM THE FERMENTATION OF MAIZE.
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This research was aimed at designing an industrial process for the production of Ogi from the fermentation of maize, using a powdered substrate. This was achieved by reviewing the traditional process and introducing a revised process. The steps involved in the revised process included grinding, sieving, fermenting (under anaerobic conditions) and drying. Analysis of varying fermented samples to overall composition of substrate (2-10%), varying moisture content (83-152%), varying temperature (30-50 ) and time (4-84 hours); and their effect on the growth rate of the active microorganisms was carried out. Also, microbiology tests are carried out using the traditional process and the revised process and the observations recorded. A controlled environment is proven to be created by introducing anaerobic conditions to the process. The model is obtained from this analysis and the optimal values for the target acidity value of 2.9 is given. It is concluded from the results obtained that the revised process adopted in this research is suitable for industrial production of Ogi.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
LIST OF FIGURES 8
LIST OF TABLES 8
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 10
1.1: BACKGROUND OF STUDY 10
1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT 11
1.3: AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 12
1.3.1: AIM 12
1.3.2: OBJECTIVE 12
1.4: METHOD AND SCOPE 13
1.5: RELEVANCE OF RESEARCH TO THE SOCIETY 13
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1: OVERVIEW OF MAIZE. 15
2.1.1: HISTORY OF MAIZE RESEARCH IN NIGERIA 15
2.1.2: NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF MAIZE: 16
2.2: REVIEW OF PASTWORKS ON OGI 18
2.2.1: FERMENTATION DYNAMICS DURING PRODUCTION OF OGI, A NIGERIAN FERMENTED CEREAL PORRIDGE by Omemu, A.M. 18
2.2.2: MICROORGANISM IN PRIMARY FERMENTATION OF MAIZE FOR OGI PRODUCTION by Okpalla, J. and Onyeneto, T.C. 19
2.2.3: ISOLATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING LACTOBACILLI FROM AKAMU (A NIGERIAN FERMENTED CEREAL GRUEL) 20
2.3: OVERVIEW OF PREDOMINANT BACTERIA SPECIES 21
2.3.1: LACTOBACILLUS SPP 21
2.3.2: CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARIUM 21
2.4: ISOLATION OF MICROORGANISMS 23
2.4.1: Nutrient Agar 23
2.4.2: MRS Agar 24
2.4.3: MacConkey Agar 25
2.4.4: Gram Staining 26
2.5: OVERVIEW OF FERMENTATION PROCESS 31
2.5.1: TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUE FOR FERMENTATION PROCESS 31
2.6: BIOREACTORS AND CELL GROWTH RATE LAWS 32
2.6.1: BIOREACTORS 32
2.6.2: CELL GROWTH 33
2.6.3: RATE LAWS 36
2.6.4: DOUBLING TIME 36
2.7: STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE USED 37
2.7.1: FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 37
2.8: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OF OGI PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA. 38
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 41
3.1 RAW MATERIALS AND REAGENTS 41
3.2 INSTRUMENTATION AND EQUIPMENT 41
3.3: METHODS AND EXPERIMENTS 42
3.3.1: ISOLATION OF BACTERIA PRESENT DURING TRADITIONAL METHOD FOR FERMENTATION. 42
3.3.2: DETERMINING THE BEST CONDITIONS TO ACHIEVE THE THRESHOLD PH FOR FERMENTATION PROCESS. 43
3.3.3: ISOLATION OF BACTERIA IN SELECT EXPERIMENT 2 RUNS 57
3.4: SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 58
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 60
4.1: RESULTS 60
4.1.1: Experiment 1 Results 60
4.1.2: Experiment 2 Results 60
4.1.3: Experiment 3 Results 64
4.2: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 65
4.2.1: Discussion of experiment 1 65
4.2.2: Discussion of experiment 2 65
4.2.3: Discussion of Experiment 3 66
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 68
5.1: CONCLUSION 68
5.2: RECOMMENDATIONS 68
APPENDIX A 71
APPENDIX B 81
According to Sahlin, 1999, one tenth of the children under five years of age dies due to dehydration in most developing countries. The dehydration is mainly caused by so many severe cases of diarrhoea. The main reason for contacting diarrhoea is the ingestion of food that does not have the appropriate standard regarding the hygienic conditions. The hygienic standard of a food is based on the processing and handling of the food, as much as on the conditions of the raw materials. A food item prepared with water that is contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, will successively become contaminated, and as such becomes a health risk.
It is known that pathogenic microorganisms normally found in food is not be able to grow in an acidic environment that is at pH below four. This acidity is characteristic of lactic acid fermented food. This is the case in the Fermentation of maize to get Ogi. (Sahlin, 1999)
Traditionally, Ogi, also known as Akamu or Pap, is produced generally by steeping corn grains in warm water for one to two or three days followed by wet milling and sieving through a screen mesh. The sieved material is allowed to sediment and fermented, and is marketed as wet cake. Various food dishes are made from the fermented cakes or Ogi. During the steeping period, S. cerevisiae, Enterobacter cloacae and Lactobacillus Plantarum have been found to be prominent in traditional ogi fermentation.
In Nigeria, Ogi is the most preferred for weaning infants and it is made from maize (zea mays), millet (Pennisetumamericanum), or guinea corn (Sorghum spacers). Using Anambra state as case study, it is found that most mothers introduce the thin gruel at three to six months of age. The baby is fed on demand with a spoon while some mothers use the traditional forced hand-feeding method. After the successful introduction the thin gruel, other staple foods in the family menu are introduced to the child. (Egwim, et al,. 2013)
According to FAO estimates, 925 million people suffered from hunger in 2010, the majority of them living in rural areas. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world with the highest percent-age of chronically malnourished people (OECD/FAO, 2011). The reasons behind Africa’s serious problem to efficiently and sufficiently feed itself both quantitatively and qualitatively are numerous, but are centered majorly on agronomic constraints and limitations of locally appropriate processing techniques, thus resulting in massive postharvest losses of 30 to 50% (Shiundu & Oniang’o, 2007). Child mortality in sub-Sahara Africa was reported to be 104 per 1000 live births in 1992, and to range from 51 in South Africa to 147 in Malawi per 1000 childbirths in different African countries in 1994 (Kalipeni, 2000). The UN inter-agency group for child mortality estimation reported in 2013 that the highest rates of child mortality are still in sub-Saharan Africa, with an under-five mortality rate of 98 deaths per 1000 live births, this being 15 times the average for developed regions (UN Interagency Group for Child Mortality estimation, 2013). Feachem & Jamison, 1991 estimated that an African child would have a 10% chance of suffering from diarrhoea on any given day and a 14% chance of dying from a severe episode. This is significant since diarrhoea accounts for 37% of child-hood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, being one of the foremost causes of poor health and childhood mortality (Kalipeni, 2000). Thus, Africa is a continent with a high incidence of diarrheal diseases, especially among young children, where child mortality of children less than five years old is extremely high.
To design an Industrial process for the large scale production of Ogi from the fermentation of Maize.
- To isolate the Bacteria present when applying the traditional fermentation method.
- To vary the key parameters involved in a revised process and determine the optimal values for best results.
- To identify the microbial composition of the fermentation product using the revised method.
This Research project seeks to provide a new process for the industrial production of Ogi from the fermentation of maize. The Revised method that is being tested in this research is
- Grinding: The maize grains are to be ground into fine particles. The advantage of this process is that it provides a very wide surface area for microorganisms to access the nutrients of the maize and feed on it to give lactic acid and glucose.
- Sieving: The dry ground substrate is then to be sieved to remove larger particles and debris so as to obtain a more consistent sample. The sieve size used in this research work is 150 mc.
- Fermentation: Here the Substrate is to be mixed with varying composition of Water, fermented Ogi and varying values of Temperature and time in a fermenter. The variables are to be generated on Minitab software and results analyzed.
- Drying: The fermented product is to be dried and moisture content measured using weight-loss method.
According to Aworh (2008), the capacity to preserve food in any region is directly related to the level of technological development in that region. He also stressed that the slow pace of upgrading traditional techniques in food processing and preservation in West Africa contributes to food and nutrition insecurity in the sub-region. An appropriate transformation of these primitive techniques to modern or mechanized methods stand the chance of creating more employment opportunities in the rural areas which in turn will reduce rural-urban migration and the associated social problems (Aworh, 2008). He also highlighted that the adoption of inappropriate technologies in food processing, poor management, inadequate working capital and limited access to funds and financial institution are limiting the required growth of small scale food industries in West African countries. The traditional processing of Ogi often employ fermentation techniques that are characterized by the use of simple non-sterile equipment, introduction of natural inoculums, unregulated conditions, sensory fluctuations, poor durability and unattractive packing of the processed products which result in unpredictable quality of the product. (Bolaji, Adepoju, & Olalusi, 2015)
The Research Project seeks to provide a standard industrial process for the large scale production of this indigenous product. This process is focused on eliminating the threat of bad hygiene and exposure to pathogens that the traditional process has as a major shortcoming.
This research project also seeks to provide economical friendly products that will impact on food availability and also food export. These will in effect improve the country’s foreign exchange and increase the country’s GDP. In summary, the relevance of the project is to solve the nutritional, economic and technological problems that have been highlighted above.
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