Instant Download

Download your project material immediately after online payment.

Project File Details


3,000.00

100% Money Back Guarantee

File Type: MS Word (DOC) & PDF
File Size:1,774 KB
Number of Pages:54

ABSTRACT

Wireless sensor networks, thanks to recent technological advances, has become prevalent
and offer a variety of applications ranging from environmental monitoring to support and
automate chores fields. However, this very promising technology faces many inherent
constraints (sensor node architecture, runtime, etc…). All these, because the network face
many challenges such as energy efficiency, routing, self-organization and self-maintenance,
data aggregation, security, mobility, etc. A wireless sensor network is a special case of ad
hoc networks and therefore inherits certain characteristics of ad hoc networks. Due to the
nature of the wireless environment, the sensor nodes face many security challenges.
Intruders may enter the network and cause disruption of its normal operation. Nodes
usually perform energy-saving mechanisms that allow them to switch to standby (sleep)
mode from time to time. However, an evil intentioned node can join the network and thus
prohibit nodes wishing enter standby mode from turning off their radio. This can be
termed as sleep deprivation torture also known as Denial of sleep attacks. It is achieved by
making them believe that there is data to be transmitted or just has to stay awake for
monitoring. Much overhead is introduced in most of the existing works on sleep
deprivation attacks detection, leading to poor performance. The need of the day is to
therefore develop energy efficient methods by which the attack can be mitigated. In this
work, a strong link-layer authentication and Anti-replay protection is proposed for TMAC
protocol to mitigate Denial of sleep attacks. Simulation results show that our proposed
mechanism is able to reduce the effects of Denial of sleep attacks in Wireless Sensor
Networks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.0 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.1 Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network: An Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.3 MOTIVATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE DOCUMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
CHAPTER 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.0 STATE OF ART …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK ………………………………………… 9
2.1.1 Contention-based Protocols …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
2.1.2 TDMA Based Protocols ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.2 DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK …………………………………………………………. 15
2.2.1 Categories of Attacks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.2.1 Physical Layer ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.2.2 Data link Layer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.2.3 Network Layer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.2.4 Transport Layer ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
2.2.5 Application Layer ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
2.3 DATA LINK LAYER ATTACKS AGAINST MAC PROTOCOLS ……………………………………………………………………. 21
2.3.1 Attack on SMAC ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
2.3.2 Attack on TMAC ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.3.3 Attack on GMAC …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
2.4 LITERATURE REVIEW OF DENIAL OF SLEEP ATTACKS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK …………………………. 23
2. 5 TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES USED ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
CHAPTER 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
3.0 ANALYSIS AND PRPOSED METHOD ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
3.1 ANALYSIS OF EXISTING METHODS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
3.2 PROPOSED METHOD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
3.2.1 Behavior of Proposed Mechanism under Denial of Sleep attacks. ……………………………………………………………….. 40
CHAPTER 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
4.0 EVALUATION OF RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
4.1 ASSUMPTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
4.2 SIMULATION PARAMETERS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
4.3 SIMULATION RESULTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
4.4 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
CHAPTER 5 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
5.0 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
2
5.1 CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
5.2 FUTURE WORK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
CHAPTER 6 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
6.0 6.0 BIBLOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), is composed of several spatially distributed nodes, and connected to one or more sensors, which monitor a large physical environment. The nodes (wireless devices) are typically small in size and capable of performing sensing, on-board processing, communication and storage. WSNs [1] offer economically viable solutions for a variety of applications such as current implementations to monitor factory instrumentation, pollution levels, freeway traffic, and the structural integrity of buildings. Other applications include climate sensing and control in office buildings, and home environmental sensing systems for temperature, light, moisture, and motion. The Development of wireless sensor networks resulted mainly from the military applications [2] such as battlefield surveillance. In 1978, the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) organized the Distributed Sensor Nets Workshop, focusing on sensor network research challenges such as networking technologies, signal processing techniques, and distributed algorithms. DARPA also operated the Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) program in the early 1980s, which was then followed by the Sensor Information Technology (SensIT) program. Currently, WSN is viewed as one of the most important technologies for the 21st century (21 Ideas for the 21st Century, 1999). WSN is
becoming a more commonplace and can be found in research projects and civilian
applications as well as defense projects. The sensor nodes are often deployed to remote and inaccessible areas and thereby increase their exposure to malicious intrusions and attacks. WSN is therefore faced with several security challenges when deployed to remote areas. One of the most challenging security threats is a Denial of Service Attack (DoS) which is the result of any action that prevents any part of a WSN from functioning correctly or in a timely manner [3]. It can be viewed as a malicious attempt to make network resource unavailable to legitimate users, thus is considered one of the most general and dangerous
attacks endangering network security.
4
Types of DoS attacks [4] include Jamming attack, Exhaustion attacks, Selective Forwarding attacks, Flooding, Denial of Sleep, and Sinkhole among others which will be discussed later. It is important to develop ways of preventing/detecting these attacks from occurring to get maximum functionality of the Network. A specific type of DoS is the Denial of sleep attack which comes in the form of sending useless control traffic and forces the nodes to forgo
their sleep cycles so that they are completely exhausted and hence stop working [5]. This work reviews several ways of detecting the denial of sleep attacks and determines an
efficient way to mitigate the attacks.
1.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network: An Overview
Sensing is simply an art used for obtaining information about a physical object or process
such as changes in temperature or pressure. Any object that is able to perform such task is
referred to as a Sensor. When many sensors co-operatively monitor large physical environments, they form a Wireless Sensor Network[2] . The sensor nodes communicate
with centralized control called base stations also known as the sink nodes. A base station normally allows dissemination of information to another network, a powerful data processing or storage center, or an access point for human interface. Communication with
the base station could either be single-hop, where the nodes transmit data directly to the base station or multi-hop, where some nodes serve as relays for other sensor nodes, that is, they collaborate to propagate sensor data towards the base station. There could be variation in the processing and communication capabilities of the sensor nodes in WSN. Some could be Simple nodes while others categorized as complex nodes depending on their configurations. The two important operations of a WSN are data dissemination (send data/queries from sinks to sensor nodes) and data gathering (send sensed data from sensor nodes to the sinks) [6]. The architecture of the network could either be “flat”, where each node plays the same sensing task and there is no global identifier in a sensor network or “hierarchical”, where sensor nodes are divided into the clusters, where cluster members
send their data to cluster head and which further send the data to the sink node. The IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which was introduced in 1997, is the most common wireless networking technology for mobile systems. However, the high-energy overheads of IEEE 802.11-based networks make this standard unsuitable for low-power sensor networks.
5
This has led to the development of a variety of protocols that better satisfy the networks’ need for low power consumption and low data rates. These sensor nodes however possess
some major characteristics described below.
1.1.1.1 Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Nodes
 Limited Resource: Power consumption is highly constrained as nodes depend on
batteries or energy captured from the environment. Memory and processing capacity of the nodes is also limited due to the small sizes of the nodes. Energy is a very crucial resource for sensor networks. Therefore, developing energy saving
techniques has a great impact in the network architecture.  Large Scale of Deployment: A sensor network may consist of thousands of
heterogeneous nodes with one or more centralized control called Base Stations. The
network structure, and resource used are often ad hoc (without planning).
 Specific Application: A sensor nodes is usually designed to serve a specific application. The nature of the sensor’s application may affect the cost and physical
size of the sensor nodes.  Harsh Environments condition: Sensor networks often operate in environments with harsh conditions and should possess the ability to withstand these conditions.
 Node Failure Recovery: Due to the fact that the nodes are usually deployed in remote and hostile environments, there is usually little or no human intervention. The network topology should therefore have the ability to tolerate the failure of nodes and activate self-configuring schemes to avoid network partition
 Self-Management: When deployed in remote/harsh environments, the nodes should
be able to configure themselves, adapt to failures without human intervention. In these energy-constrained devices, the self-management features must be designed and implemented such that little overheads are incurred.
6
1.1.1.2 Requirements for WSNs
 Fault Tolerance: Despite the fact that the sensor nodes are prone to errors as a result of node failure due to harsh environment, there should be consistency in the
network functionality.
 Lifetime: The nodes are dependent on either batteries or energy scavenged from the environment for power supply. The nodes should therefore be able to function maximally before completely exhausting the batteries. Thus, energy saving and load balancing must be taken into account in the design and implementation of WSN
platform, protocols and application.
 Scalability: The protocols defined in the network should be able to adapt to high densities and numerous number of nodes.
 Real-time: Strict- timing constraints for sensing, processing and communication are necessary since the network is tightly related to the real world.
 Production cost: Since large number of nodes is being deployed, the cost of production should be low.
 Security: The need for security in WSNs is evident due to the nature of the nodes. The remote and unattended operation of sensor nodes increases their exposure to malicious intrusions and attacks. Some attacks are mainly targeted at the power of the nodes to prevent successful sensor communications. The main focus of this thesis is to provide security mechanisms for the nodes in the network. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Due to the power limitation of the sensor nodes, they are scheduled periodically to go into
sleep mode, but attackers /intruders prevent the nodes from transiting to sleep mode. This is usually done by sending unnecessary fake packets, making their radio turned on (trying to process the fake packets) thereby completely exhausting the power supply and reducing their lifetime from years/months to days. With this, the overall network performance is reduced.
7
1.3 MOTIVATION
Ideally, the sensor nodes should be able to capture, analyze and process data in a timely fashion. This is because the network is usually applied in real life situations that require optimum and efficient results such that the nodes are not expected to in any way lose their functionality. However when some attackers successfully intrude the network and completely drain the power of the nodes, the consequence could be extremely costly as it could result in casualties. Denial of service attack makes it impossible for the network to
function as expected. It is more disastrous when the power of the nodes is targeted since
they are highly dependent on batteries. This reduces the overall performance of the
network. Several techniques can be developed and implemented to identify and mitigate these attacks. Our main focus is to detect attacks targeted at the Link Layer. 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
This project aims at achieving the following:
 Review of various technical intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks.
 Determine the procedures of denial of service attack (standby).
 Implement a method for detecting and isolating intruders from the network
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, the following approaches were adopted:
 We surveyed the different types of Denial of Service attacks and ways by which the
attacks can be initiated.  Since denial of sleep attacks occur at the Data link/MAC Layer, we reviewed the
various MAC protocols for WSN and Denial-of-sleep vulnerabilities on the state-ofthe-
art WSN MAC protocols were analyzed.  Then, different techniques to mitigate Denial of Sleep attacks was investigated and analyzed and the limitation(s) of each was discussed
8
 Finally, an efficient algorithm was proposed and implemented using simulation
frameworks such as Castalia, OMNeT++ to provide experimental analysis on the
behavior of the algorithm.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE DOCUMENT
This work is organized as follows:
Chapter 2 introduces the various Denial of Service attacks in Wireless Sensor Network, WSN MAC protocols and Related Works in Detecting Denial of Sleep attacks in WSN. Chapter 3 presents the analysis of related works and presents the algorithm to detect denial of sleep attacks. Chapter 4 discusses the implementation of the proposed algorithm and evaluation of results. Chapter 5 provides the conclusion and future

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Most of the project works are provided by the schools' libraries to help in guiding students on their research. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348157165603 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to hello@projects.ng. We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 or 48 hours to process your request.