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ABSTRACT

Integrating technology into the educational sector is progressively influenced by different multicultural settings across the world. Accordingly, this research employed a modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to investigate how culture directly affects the acceptance of ICT in education. This study focused on the Hausa-Fulani cultural group in Jimeta-Yola, questionnaires were administered to gather data (quantitative approach) which was analysed using smart PLS. The gathered data uncovered the presence of cultural barriers amongst the selected sample towards the acceptance of ICT in education. Findings indicated that culture directly affects acceptance of ICT in education within Jimeta-Yola area of Adamawa State. The research concludes by providing recommendations for research and practice

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………… II
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………. IV
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. V
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………. VI
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………….. VIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 BACKGROUND ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………….. 6
2.1 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.2 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ……………………… 6
2.3 THE NEED FOR ICT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS ……………………………………………… 7
2.4 CULTURE AND ITS PRESENCE IN LEARNING ……………………………………………….. 9
2.5 THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
2.6 HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK …………….. 12
2.6.1 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.6.2 THEORY OF REASONED ACTION (TRA) ……………………………………………………. 12
2.6.3 THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR (TPB) ………………………………………………. 13
2.6.4 TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL (TAM) …………………………………………… 15
2.6.5 THE UNIFIED THEORY OF ACCEPTANCE AND USE OF TECHNOLOGY (UTAUT) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………… 24
3.1 INTRODUCTION: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
3.3 RESEARCH PARADIGM ………………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.4 RESEARCH REASONING APPROACH ……………………………………………………………………… 28
3.5 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACH ……………………………………………………… 30
3.6 MEASUREMENT OF CONSTRUCT ………………………………………………………………………….. 30
3.7 SOURCES OF DATA ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
3.8 SAMPLING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
3.8.1 Sample Size ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
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3.9 DATA QUALITY ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.9.1 Reliability………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
3.9.2 Validity……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.10 MEASURE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION …………………………………………………………. 35
4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION …………………………………………………………………………….. 35
4.2 PARTIAL LEAST SQUARE …………………………………………………………………………….. 37
4.3 TESTING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY ………………………………………………………………….. 38
4.3.1 Reliability………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
4.3.2 Validity……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.4 PATH MODEL……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
4.5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING ………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION …………………………….. 46
5.1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
5.2 DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
5.3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………………………… 47
5.5 FURTHER RECOMMENDATION …………………………………………………………………………….. 47
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The world as we know it today, continues to rapidly evolve with the impact of the digital age across various sectors (educational, personal, business, social, professional etc.) as we navigate through our daily interactions in the new age. One of such remarkable impact of technology in this new millennium is the progressive growth in the educational sector spurred by the integration of Information and Communications Technology (Apena, 2012). Thus, within this period, ICT is considered among the essential constructs of the present progressive societies and thus, leading numerous countries to its adoption (UNESCO, 2002). People are becoming more skilled in using ICT as a tool for enhancing essential education as supporters of ICT advocate that, as the rapid development and use of technology increases daily, technology knowledge will become a necessity in education, work, community and private activities (Erumban & de Jong, 2006). Consequently, people from different cultural backgrounds would support ICT and its application would slowly and gradually be implanted into day-to-day operations.
Technology continues to spread across the globe leading millions of people to appreciate and adopt its use in their daily operations. Therefore, the digital revolution is gradually making the world more inter-connected. The technology used today has resulted in the volume of data we produce which keeps multiplying every year (Cukier & Mayer-Schoenberger, 2013b). The amount of Google searches particularly in the educational sector has increased over the last two decades. Thus, studies show that in the near future, even more activities and operations will be linked directly to technology and Artificial Intelligence (AI), such as houses, vehicles, educational sectors, home appliances and lots more (Cukier & Mayer-Schoenberger, 2013a). Therefore, if we can employ technology in our daily lives to link our
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computers, phones, homes, vehicles, work places using ‘smart’ technology, why not our educational sectors? Why not adopt technology into education and have a smart education system?
To achieve continuous success in ICT’s impact in the educational sector, a proper review of the needs, opportunities and challenges being faced in the educational sector is necessary to frame the solutions and gaps that ICT will be able to fill within education in society. ICT in education should focus on teaching the application of critical thinking, creativity, innovation and how technology can be used to improve learning and interactions within and outside the classroom. Robots and computer algorithms are already performing some human tasks, so it is of great importance that ICT in education should enlighten people to control the critical use of digital technologies, and be aware of the benefits and the disadvantages. Integrating digital technologies well into our social lives, especially into cultural settings, will have positive impact on culture (Nistor, Lerche, Weinberger, Ceobanu, & Heymann, 2014). This affects understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity as global barriers continuously merge into one global village. Thus, such exposure and knowledge would lead many communities and cultures to be more predisposed to accept ICT readily into their lives. To achieve this great success, the cultural setting of a society should play a vital part in ICT acceptance (Erumban & de Jong, 2006).
The adoption and use of ICT in education is observed to involve people with diverse cultural characteristics which cut across regions and national boundaries. However, there is a lower chance of ICT incorporation into education across rural communities, especially in developing countries, such as Nigeria. A keen interest in this study is to investigate the relationship between ICT acceptance and culture in the multi-cultural communities in Jimeta-Yola of Adamawa State in North-East Nigeria. Therefore, there is need to understand the effect of culture on the acceptance and use of ICT in education and identify the cultural
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barriers associated with the acceptance of educational technologies within Secondary Schools in Jimeta-Yola of Adamawa State. The “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)” by Venkatesh (2003) is adopted in exploring and validating factors that can reduce cultural barriers to the acceptance and use of ICT in education within Jimeta-Yola Secondary Schools.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
It is interesting to find that the Nigerian government, according to the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in 2015, established that when ICT is given strong emphasis, it will have a great impact on knowledge and economic growth, which has already been observed in some developed countries. Furthermore, ICT in education provides a firm basis which can influence the Nigerian economy and society. Human capital (quality of labour force) is usually expected to be a key component for national development and economic growth. Therefore, it is imperative to promote the application of technological tools in education, mainly in rural Nigeria, where acceptance of technology experiences severe challenges due to cultural beliefs.
The connection between ICT-supported education system and socioeconomic development has been explored in literature (Ngoma, 2013). Studies show that the introduction of technology is often faced with constraints and challenges like cultural barriers using the technology, limited computer literacy, power failure, out-of-date systems, lack of competent ICT instructors, etc. before reaching its target and after acceptance (Harbor, 2004; Ngoma, 2013). If correctly implemented, ICT in education can expressively and categorically impact learning and the economic landscape of Jimeta-Yola in Adamawa state, Nigeria and beyond.
Therefore, to guarantee genuine acceptance of ICT tools in the classroom, this study investigates how ICT-supported educational improvement would be accepted given the
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identified cultural barriers in Jimeta-Yola Secondary Schools. Thus, the research questions are as follows:
1. What are the cultural barriers impeding the adoption of ICT in Secondary Schools in Jimeta-Yola?
2. What are the factors that can overcome the cultural barrier to the acceptance of ICT tools in rural classrooms?
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This research is aimed at discovering the cultural challenges impeding acceptance and the use of ICT by testing a framework for effective ICT integration into the classroom of Jimeta-Yola schools of Adamawa state.
The objectives are:
To investigate how ICT tools can be adopted in the Secondary Schools in the Jimeta-Yola in Adamawa State.
To examine the influence of culture on the acceptance and use of ICT in education by testing a framework that would enhance the acceptance and use of ICT within classrooms of the Secondary Schools in Jimeta-Yola of Adamawa State.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this study covered the population of one culture in Adamawa State which is the Hausa-Fulani culture. Survey questionnaires were distributed to the Yola and Jimeta target population. Also, the target included women and men of those selected population localities.
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