DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE SWEET COMPONENTS OF COMMON ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS THAT ARE USED AS REPLACEMENT FOR SUGAR

Project File Details


3,000.00

Original Author (Copyright Owner):

OFFIONG MIRIAM ESSIEN

Category: Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Description

Download the complete Biochemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE SWEET COMPONENTS OF COMMON ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS THAT ARE USED AS REPLACEMENT FOR SUGAR  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE SWEET COMPONENTS OF COMMON ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS THAT ARE USED AS REPLACEMENT FOR SUGAR

The Project File Details

  • Name: DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE SWEET COMPONENTS OF COMMON ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS THAT ARE USED AS REPLACEMENT FOR SUGAR
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [557 KB]
  • Length: [55] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research investigated how the sweetness of sugar substitute compares to the sweetness of sugar. In this research different percentage solution of sugar, artificial sweetener and natural sweetener (10%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01%) were prepared. Ten volunteers were gathered for the sensory evaluation in this case tasting of the solution, the volunteer‟s taste threshold of data was gotten. The artificial sweetener was found out to be the sweetest among the substances experimented and at the percentage of 0.1% and 0.01% saccharin an artificial sweetener was able to mimic the taste of sugar. Research prove that artificial sweetener are non-nutritive they have virtually no calories in contrast to sugar which contains 4 calories at each gram, a teaspoon of sugar is about 4 grams, for weight lose artificial sweetener may be an attractive option to sugar. Artificial sweetener may also be a good alternative for diabetic patient, unlike sugar; artificial sweeteners generally don‟t raise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page —————————————————————————–i
Certification————————————————————————-ii
Acknowledgement—————————————————————–iii
Abstract——————————————————————————-iv
Table of contents——————————————————————–v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction———————————————————————1-4
1.1Research aim and objectives————————————————–4-5
1.2 Significance of study…………………………………………………………………5
CHAPTER TWO
Review of literature
2.0 Table sugar (sucrose)……………………………………………………………….6
2.1Classification of sugar………………………………………………………………6-7
2.1.1Mechanism of action in the body…………………………………………….7-8
2.1.2 Sugar alcohols and novel sweeteners………………………………………8-9
2.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of sugar………………………………….9-10
2.2 Artificial sweetener…………………………………………………………………10-11
2.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of artificial sweetener……………….11-12
2.2.2 Reasons for use…………………………………………………………………….12-13
2.2.3 Differences btw sugar and artificial sweetener…………………………13
2.2.4 Biochemical reaction of artificial sweetener…………………………….13
2.3 Aspartame………………………………………………………………………………15-16
2.4 Sucralose………………………………………………………………………….17
2.5 Saccharin………………………………………………………………………….18-19
2.6 Stevia……………………………………………………………………………….19-20
2.7 Erythritol…………………………………………………………………………..20-21
2.8 Honey……………………………………………………………………………….21-22
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods……………………………………………………….23
3.1 Equipment/apparatus used…………………………………………………..23
3.2 Methodology……………………………………………………………………..24-25
3.3 Testing the solutions……………………………………………………………..27-28
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result…………………………………………………………………………………29
4.1 Volunteer‟s taste threshold data for sugar…………………………………30
4.2 Volunteer‟s taste threshold data for saccharin…………………………..31
4.3 Volunteer‟s taste threshold data for honey………………………………..31
4.4Total number of people who detected a change in taste………………32
4.5 Degree of sweetness………………………………………………………………34
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion and conclusion…………………………………………………………..36-37
References………………………………………………………………………………….39
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………….46
List of tables
Table 4.1……………………………………………………………………………………29
Table 4.2……………………………………………………………………………………30
Table 4.3…………………………………………………………………………………….31
Table 4.4…………………………………………………………………………………….32
Table 4.5…………………………………………………………………………………….34-35

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION:
A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in
taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and
some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are in general, called artificial
sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are found in a
variety of food and beverages marketed as sugar free or diet including soft
drinks, chewing gum, jellies, baked goods, candy, fruit juice and ice-cream
and yoghurt. [Whitney 2011]
People may not all like the same kind of baked treats but one thing we all
agree on is that baked treats should be sweets usually, sugar is used to lend
sweetness to foods but would cake taste just as good if the baker used a
sugar substitutes instead of sugar? Many people prefer not to use sugar often
due to health reasons and instead depend on sugar substitutes to sweeten
their foods. But are sugar substitutes the same as sugar? What exactly are the
differences between sugar and sugar substitutes?
Sugar also known as sucrose comes from plants like sugar cane and sugar
beets and is a carbohydrate. Sugar adds bulk to cakes, cookies and all kinds
of treats; sugar also causes browning and caramelizing in foods when it is
heated as when cookies turn golden brown in the oven sugar is a natural
substance, something that our bodies can use for energy.
Sugar substitutes come in three categories; artificial sweeteners, sugar
alcohols and natural sweeteners. Artificialsweeteners are attractive because
they add almost no calories to foods and are sometimes a part of weight loss
programs. Also they donot increase blood sugar levels which mean that
diabetics can use them. Many artificial sweeteners like sucralose were
discovered by accident in the laboratory. In 1976, a scientist in England was
studying different compounds made from sugar. The scientist asked a
student to test the compounds but instead the student tested them. Another
category of sugar substitutes is sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are not
alcoholic beverages they do not contain ethanol which is found in alcoholic
beverages. Sugar alcohols like sugar have calories and energy but not
asmuch as sugar. Sugar alcohols like artificial sweeteners do not contribute
to tooth decay and affect blood sugar levels slowly so diabetics can use them.
Although sugar alcohols like xylitol, sorbitol and erythritol are manufactured
products the sources are often natural.
The last category of sugar substitutes is called natural substitutes. The
categories include maple syrup, agave nectar and honey. These substances
are absorbed by our digestive system and contain calories and nutrients that
our bodies can use. [Michelle 2002]
The chart lists some popular sugar substitutes and how they‟re commonly
categorized:
Artificial sweeteners Acesulfame potassium (sunett,sweet one)
Sugar alcohols

Erythritol
Novel sweeteners

Stevia extracts (pure via, truvia)
Natural sweeteners

Agave nectar
Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet)
Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate.
Tegatose (Naturlose)
Date sugar
Neotame Isomalt Trehalose Fruitjuice concentrate Saccharin (sugartwin, sweet “N” low Lactitol Honey Sucralose (splenda) Maltitol Maple syrup Mannitol Molasses Sorbitol Xylitol

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
AIM: To create an alternative to sugar by replicating the sweetnessfound in natural sugar.

Objectives:
To determine how the sweetness of sugar substitutes compare to the
sweetness of sugar. In this research sugar and sugar substitutes will be
tested and the sweetness will be compare in relation to sugar.
To compare the availability and affordability of the active components
in the artificial sweetener and sugar
To know the components of this artificial sweetener and what makes
them taste sweet
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Artificial sweetener mimicking the taste of sugar will be a better alternative
to people who are suffering from diabetics. Unlike sugar, artificial
sweeteners generally don‟t raise blood sugar levels because they are not
carbohydrates.