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Download the complete Science Laboratory Technology project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled DETERMINATION OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY (DPPH) OF SPROUTED AND UNSPROUTED GARLIC here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

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Download the complete Science Laboratory Technology project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled DETERMINATION OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY (DPPH) OF SPROUTED AND UNSPROUTED GARLIC here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

The Project File Details

  • Name: DETERMINATION OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY (DPPH) OF SPROUTED AND UNSPROUTED GARLIC
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [140 KB]
  • Length: [29] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Garlic (Allium sativum)  contains distinctive organosulfur compounds, which impart its unique flavor and odor and most of its biological activity.  Methanoic extract from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when accessed with invitro assay, ( 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay DPPH). Finding shows that sprouting enhances the DPPH radical scavenging activity of garlic. The aqueous extract (45.27%, 9.22%, and 3.62%) for 0-8days shows relatively high scavenging activity compared to  methanol extracts from garlic sprouted for 0- 8 day with the percentage of( 24.97%, 16.10%, 2.95%). Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 4-8 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sproute for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the findings that garlic sprouted for 8days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page……………………………………………………………………………. I

Certification…………………………………………………………………….II

Dedication……………………………………………………………………..III

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………….IV

Table of content…………………………………..….………………….…….V

Abstract…………………………………………………….………………….VI

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction…………………………………………………………….

1.1     What is Garlic? ……………………………………

1.2     Scope of study………………………………………………

1.3     Aims and objectives………………………………………………….

1.4     Definition of terms………………………………………………

1.5     Limitations of studies……………………………………

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review………………………………………

2.1     Production……………………………………………

2.2     Importance……………………………………………..

2.3     Medicinal Value………………………………………

2.4     Harvest……………………………………………….

2.5     Storage………………………………………………….

2.6     Nutritional Value………………………………………

2.7     Phytochemical of  Garlic………………………………………

2.8     Chemistry of Garlic…………………………………………

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Materials and Method………………………………….

3.1     Reagents………………………………………………..

3.2     Equipment/Apparatus………………………………………….

3.3     Collection of sample…………………………….……………

3.4     Preparation of sample…………………………………

3.5     Extraction of sample…………………………………

3.6     Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity of Garlic (DPPH)………

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Results and discussion

4.1     Results……………………………………………………………………

4.2    Discussion………………………………………………………………..

4.3     Conclusion………………………………………………………………

4.4     Recommendation………………………………………………………….

4.5     Reference …………………………………………………………………

4.6     Appendix…………………………………………………………………..

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     WHAT IS GARLIC

          Garlic grows underground in the form of a bulb, from which long green shoots emerge. The garlic bulb is covered in a papery skin which is inedible. The bulb, or head, is in turn comprised of individual sections called cloves. These garlic cloves are themselves enclosed in the same paper like skin, and the pale yellowish flesh within is the part of the garlic that is used in cooking.

Antioxidant compounds in food are found to have a health-protecting factor. Primary sources of naturally occurring antioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used in world cuisines as well as in herbal medicine for thousands of years and, at times, has been claimed to help prevent everything from high cholesterol to cancer. No clinical trials have been performed with allicin and it was never developed into a drug or commercial product due to its instability, its inability to be absorbed and its offensive odour. Allicin is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic (Allium sativum) cloves. It is produced by the interaction of the non-protein amino acid alliin with the enzyme alliinase.

All of the background research involving allicin has been done on either garlic powder from different manufacturers (Lawson et.al., 1991) or processing the garlic cloves through many different chemicals in order to obtain allicin. The instability of thiosulphinates leads to rapid decomposition in the oven of a gas chromatograph, even at moderate temperatures, and while indirect quantitation has been reported, the methods suffer from significant limitations.

There are different varieties of garlic grown and most of them were developed for different environment rather than to satisfy taste demands. Some of the varieties are listed below:

  • Porcelain garlic
  • Recambole garlic
  • Spanish or red garlic
  • Artichoke or Italian garlic
  • Black and smoked garlic
  • Wild garlic E.t.c.

Generally, there are two subspecies of garlic (USDA GRIN Taxonomy, A. sativum var. Ophioscorodon), which are the hardneck garlic (ophioscorodon) and soft neck garlic. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choices of type as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Garlic can be classified from kingdom to specie level as stated below;

Scientific classification of Garlic

Kingdom              Plantae

Phylum                 Angiosperm

Class                    Monocots

Order                    Asparagales

Family                  Amaryllidaceae

Sub family            Allioideae

Genus                   Allium

Species                 A. sativum  (The plant list, Allium sativum L.)

Therefore garlic can be seen dried or fresh. The dried one is available all year round and the fresh garlic is in season from July to the start of October.

1.2     AIM/OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of sprouting on the antioxidant capacity of garlic (Radical scavenging activity DPPH).

  • SCOPE OF STUDY

The overarching scope of study is to determine the radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of garlic. The study did not extend beyond examination of garlic in terms of its nutritional value, and its medicinal value.

1.4     DEFINITION OF TERMS

  • SPROUTING:– This involves soaking seeds, nuts, legumes or grains for several hours, then repeatedly rinsing them until they begin to develop a tail-like protrusion. Soaking softens the hull allowing the sprout to grow.

2)  ANTIOXIDANT: – This is a substance that inhibits oxidation especially one used to counteract the deterioration of stored food products. This is a super healthy compound. This is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecule.

3)  OXIDATION:- Is a chemical reaction involving the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state. Oxidation reaction can produce free radicals. In turn these radicals can start chain reactions; when chain reactions occur in a cell, it can cause damage or death to the cell. Antioxidants can also terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediate and inhibit other oxidation reaction. They do this by been oxidized themselves, so antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or polyphenols (Sies; H, March 1997).

4) FREE RADICALS:- These are atoms or group of atoms with an odd number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules

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