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ABSTRACT

Secondary clay obtained from Bomo, Zaria, Kaduna state was used for this research. Dry samples were fired to produce grog which was crushed and sieved to mesh 20 (840microns). Body composition was formulated with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% additions of grog to the clay body with the different samples sintered to three varying temperature ranges of 900oC, 1000oC and 1150oC. Samples fired to the highest temperature sintered properly compared to others and thus had a low water absorption rate of 6%. Results of the Tensile strength and Cold crushing strength tests showed that samples with 5% grog addition fired to 1150oC had the highest values of 3736.82 N/mm2and 285.45 kg/cm2 respectively. These strength property results revealed that samples with low percentages of grog, resisted load better than samples with higher additions. This research indicates a huge prospect of developing grogged clay roofing tiles using locally available clay from the study area.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – iv
Certification – – – – – – – – – – v
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – vi
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – viii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – ix
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – xiii
List of Plates – – – – – – – – – – xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Aim of the Study – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 3
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – – 3
1.6 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.7 Justification of the Study — – – – – – – 4
1.8 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.9 Basic Assumptions – – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 6
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2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 6
2.2 Tile – – – – – – – – – – 6
2.3 Roof Tiles – – – – – – – – – 7
2.4 History of Roofing Tiles – – – – – – – 8
2.5 Grog – – – – – – – – – – 9
2.6 Body – – – – – – – – – 11
2.7 Clay – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.8 Ball Clay – – – – – – – – – 14
2.9 Industrial Waste – – – – – – – – 14
2.10 Types of Roofing – – – – – – – – 15
2.10.1 Flat Roof – – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.2 Hip Roof – – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.3 Gambrel Roof – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.4 Dutch Hip Roof – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.5 Shed Roof – – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.6 Mansard Roof – – – – – – – – 16
2.10.7 Butterfly Roof – – – – – – – – 17
2.10.8 Winged Gable Roof – – – – – – – – 17
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2.10.9 A-Frame Roof- – – – – – – – – 17
2.10.10Folded Plate Roof – – – – – – – – 17
2.11 Methods of Clay Roofing Tiles Production – – – – 17
2.12 Wet Litter in Poultry Management – – – – – 19
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS – – – – 23
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 20
3.2 Population – – – – – – – – – 20
3.3 Sampling – – – – – – – – – 21
3.4 Beneficiation of Raw Materials – – – – – – 22
3.4.1 Ball Clay – – – – – – – – – 23
3.4.2 Grog beneficiation – – – – – – – – 23
3.5 Characterization of Materials – – – – – – 23
3.6 Roofing Tiles Structure and Design – – – – – 24
3.7 Mould Making – – – – – – – – 24
3.8 Body Formulation – – – – – – – – 27
3.9 Production of Test Specimen – 27
3.9.1 Drying and Sintering of Test Tiles – – – – – 28
3.10 Property Tests – – – – – – – – 30
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3.10.1 Dry Shrinkage Analysis – – – – – – – 30
3.10.2 Fire Shrinkage Analysis – – – – – – – 30
3.10.3 Tensile Strength Analysis of the Tile – – – – – 30
3.10.4 Cold Crushing Strength (CCS) Analysis – – – – 32
3.11 Tile Production – – – – – – – – 33
3.12 Drying of Tiles – – – – – – – 36
3.13 Firing of Roofing Tiles – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION – – – – 37
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 37
4.1 Result of Plasticity Test – – – – – – – 37
4.2 Results of Characterisation of Materials- – – – – 37
4.3 Colour results of the Bomo clay sample – – – – – 39
4.4 Results of Dry Shrinkage Analysis- — – – – – 39
4.5 Firing Shrinkage Analysis – – – – – – – 39
4.6 Dry Shrinkage and Firing Shrinkage results – – – – – 39
4.7 Water Absorption Test Results – – – – – 40
4.8 Tensile Strength Results of the Tiles – – – – – 41
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4.9 Cold Crushing Strength Results of the Tiles- – – – – 45
4.10 Results of the Mould Production and Use – – – – – 47
4.11 Results of the Tile Production – – – – – – 47
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 49
5.0 Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations and
Contributions to Knowledge – – – – – – 49
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 49
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – – 49
5.3 Findings – – – – – – – – – 49
5.4 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 50
5.5 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 50
5.6 References – – – – – – – – – 52

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The ceramic industry covers a diverse range of compounds and several products that can be manufactured by different methods. In view of this, therefore, this industry presents favourable conditions for the implementation of waste recovery system, thus helping to minimize their adverse impact on the environment (Sultana, S., Ahmed, A. N., Zaman, M. N., Rahman, A. M., Biswas, K. P., and Nandy, K. P., 2014).
Nowadays industrial activities are responsible for the generation of large amounts of solid wastes like ceramic industries, marble and granite industries, paper and textile industries, petroleum refinery, urban waste, ashes, aluminium rich sludge, etc (Vieira and Monteiro, 2007) The ceramic industry covers a diverse range of compounds and several products that can be manufactured by different methods. As a result therefore, this industry presents favourable conditions for the implementation of waste recovery system, thus helping to minimize their adverse impact on the environment (Sultana, et al., 2014).
The most used raw materials in the traditional ceramic industries can basically be divided into three categories: plastic components (clays), fluxing components (feldspar) and inert components (quartz and sand). Clay materials used in the red ceramic industry show an extensive range of compositions, which permit the incorporation of a variety of industrial waste materials. Some wastes are very analogous in composition to the actual raw materials used, and often contain materials that can also be helpful in the fabrication of ceramic products. One such waste material is the ceramic rejects, known as grog produced in growing amounts in the ceramic industry.
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Reformulated ceramic bricks, in which clay was replaced by grog waste, present lower plasticity that reduces the risk of dimensional defects . According to Vieira et al, (2007) grog waste could be used to improve the mechanical properties, workability, and chemical resistance of conventional ceramic bricks.
The earliest form of tiles historically dates back to pre- historic time when the use of clay as a building material was developed independently in several cultures. The first tiles was crude but 600 years ago, people started decorating them by adding pigment for colour and carving low relief designs in to their surfaces (Kashim, I. B., Fadairo, G., and Adedeji, Y. M. D., 2013)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Leakages in the roofing system, remain one of the main causes of wet litter (mixture of poultry excreta and materials used for bedding) problems in poultry management. Due to several factors which include rusting and corrosion, the widely used zinc roofing sheets over time, deteriorate and develop gaps / holes which let in water. Poultry farmers have suffered huge economic losses as a result of this challenge due to high moisture levels in litter, which is a favourable source for bacterial and viral growth. Other problems associated with wet litter include ammonia emission and deterioration of litter quality, among others (Bharti, 2008). Developing a ceramic based roofing panel using grog and clay to replace zinc sheets will be an advantage due to its durability and resistance to corrosion and rust factors.
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1.3 Aim of the Study
This study is aimed at utilizing grog and plastic clay as medium for the production of roofing tiles as a suitable alternative to zinc sheets in poultry management.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
i. examine the physical properties of clays such as plasticity, dry and fire shrinkage of the samples for the production of roofing tiles.
ii. examine the elemental properties of the clays by means of x-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer.
iii. design and produce roofing tiles using formulated grogged body
iv. examine the suitability of the tiles by carrying out mechanical property tests which include cold crushing and tensile strength tests of the roofing tile.
1.5 Research Questions
The research questions for this study are as follows:
i. How can the clay samples meet standard requirements of plasticity, dry and fired shrinkage?
ii. How do the chemical properties of clay samples used satisfy the basic requirements of clay for roof tile production?
iii. Are the tile designs made from this research suitable for production of efficient roofing tiles for poultry housing?
iv. How much can the utilization of cold crushing strength and tensile strength assessment provide the strength analysis of the tiles?
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1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the utilization of grog materials sourced from Zaria and environs and also clay obtained and compounded within the study area. This study is confined to field exploration, exploitation, and studio experimentation on these materials for the production of roofing tiles.
1.7 Justification of the Study
Developing an efficient ceramic roofing tile for the poultry industry will promote the harnessing of abundant natural resources, as well as reduce huge economic losses farmers encounter as a result of frequent changes in damaged zinc roofing sheets. Consequently, the cooling effect of using ceramic roofing tiles will revolutionize otherwise difficult/ stressful conditions of poultry farming in hot temperate areas of Nigeria.
Awoniyi, (2003) observes that egg production under the asbestos roof is better than under the metal roof due to reduced adverse temperature effects on the birds which leads to stress conditions that hampers their productivity. It has also been observed that poultry houses emit ammonia gas which forms ammonium hydroxide that rapidly attacks most metal surfaces like zinc roofs. It is expected that the product of this research will provide a better alternative to the existing and commonly used zinc roofing sheets especially in view of harmful effects of asbestos. Though there is evidence of extensive use of grog in ceramic production, there is paucity of information on its use as an additive in clay roofing tile production. This study will bring innovation in the area of grog usage in roof tile design as well as tile production.
1.8 Significance of the Study
The exploitation and processing of ceramic raw materials are enough to influence development and capacity building among the local miners around the communities where they are located. Nigeria had relied solely on her oil wealth at the expense of all other
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naturally endowed agricultural and enormous mineral resources that abound in many parts of the country.
This study is significant as it will help create awareness of the possibilities inherent in these materials for the development of ceramic production in the country as a nation. The outcome of the study will propagate a new use for grog which was hitherto dumped as waste and create addition to the inventory on consumable raw materials in Nigeria. The study will open a new vista of opportunities in the utilization of local clays for the production of roofing tiles for residential, educational and commercial buildings in Nigeria.
1.9 Basic Assumptions
The following basic assumptions are drawn
i. That the raw materials for the production of roofing tiles i.e. clay and grog are available in large enough quantities.
ii. That there is a growing demand for alternative roofing tiles in the industry.
iii. That the production of ceramic roofing tiles will introduce variety in the indigenous building industry as a building material
iv. That it will alleviate the current problems faced by poultry farmers by serving as an alternative choice.

 

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